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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of older adults, and association with FV intake

From: The influence of co-residential and non-co-residential living arrangements on sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption in the aging population in Thailand

Variables N %Total FV grams/day P value
< 400 ≥ 400
Total 2048 100.0 68.1 31.9
Sex
 Male 918 44.8 70.6 29.4 0.030*
 Female 1130 55.2 66.1 33.9
Age in years (Mean = 68.2, Median = 67, SD = 6.5, Min = 60, Max = 93)
 60–64 698 34.1 67.6 32.5 0.100
 65–69 593 28.9 65.8 34.2
 70–79 617 30.1 69.0 31.1
 80 or over 139 6.8 77.0 23.7
Place of residence
 Urban 847 41.4 64.2 35.8 0.002**
 Rural 1201 58.6 70.8 29.2
Marital status
 Single 82 4.0 57.3 41.5 0.104
 Married 1412 69.0 68.1 32.0
 Widowed/divorced/separated 554 27.0 69.7 30.1
Educational attainment
 No formal education 322 15.7 72.7 27.3 0.009**
 Primary school 1407 68.7 68.4 31.6
 Secondary school 218 10.6 64.2 35.3
 Bachelor’s or higher degree 102 5.0 55.9 44.1
Occupation
 Unemployed 1163 56.8 70.7 29.3 0.005**
 Farmer 429 21.0 62.2 37.8
 Non-farmer 456 22.3 66.9 33.1
Personal income (baht per month)
 No income 377 18.4 76.1 23.9 0.001**
 Less than 10,000 1345 65.7 67.4 32.6
 10,000-19,999 202 9.9 59.9 39.6
 20,000 or above 123 6.0 63.4 36.6
Self-rated health
 Good/very good 746 36.5 64.9 35.3 0.016*
 Moderate/not good/bad 1301 63.5 69.9 30.0
Knowledge of FV
 High/highest 1151 56.2 64.4 35.7 0.000***
 Low/lowest 897 43.8 72.8 27.1
Exposure to a community campaign
 High/highest 773 37.7 63.4 36.6 0.000***
 Low/lowest 1275 62.3 71.0 29.0
Household size (persons)
(Mean = 3.8, Median = 3, SD = 1.9, Min 1, Max 11)
 1–2 637 31.1 62.0 38.0 0.000***
 3–4 745 36.4 67.8 32.2
 5 or more 665 32.5 74.3 25.9
Living arrangements
 With at least one child 1144 55.9 70.0 30.0 0.001**
 With spouse only 362 17.7 59.7 40.3
 Skipped-generation household 273 13.3 69.6 30.4
 With relatives or/and non- relatives 140 6.8 63.6 36.4
 Alone 129 6.3 76.7 24.0
  1. Note(s): *Sig. ≤ 0.05, **Sig ≤ 0.01, ***Sig ≤ 0.001