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Table 4 Cost analysis

From: Long-term cost-utility analysis of remote monitoring of older patients with pacemakers: the PONIENTE study

Perspectives Variables All CM group RM group CM vs. RM Difference per patient
(n = 55) (n = 34) (n = 21)  
Mean SD 95% CI Mean SD 95% CI Mean SD 95% CI Mean dif. p-value
  In-office visits per patient 6.27 2.56 (5.58–6.97) 7.44 1.71 (6.84–8.04) 4.38 2.62 (3.19–5.57) 3.06 < 0.001
  Transmissions from home per patient 6.62 1.72 (5.84–7.4)
Public Health System Physician (€) 157.50 46.80 (144.85–170.15) 164.72 37.83 (151.52–177.92) 145.82 57.62 (119.59–172.05) 18.90 0.191
Administrative (€) 11.82 3.29 (10.93–12.71) 11.67 2.68 (10.74–12.61) 12.06 4.15 (10.18–13.95) −0.39 0.703
Staff costs (Physician + Administrative) (€) 169.32 49.97 (155.81–182.83) 176.39 40.51 (162.26–190.53) 157.88 61.75 (129.77–185.99) 18.51 0.231
Transport in ambulance (€) 63.99 55.35 (49.03–78.96) 70.11 63.42 (47.98–92.24) 54.09 38.33 (36.64–71.54) 16.01 0.248
Consultation room (€) 5.75 2.54 (5.07–6.44) 7.14 1.64 (6.57–7.71) 3.50 2.09 (2.55–4.46) 3.64 < 0.001
Total PHS costs (€) 239.07 94.79 (213.44–264.69) 253.64 95.86 (220.19–287.08) 215.48 90.28 (174.38–256.57) 38.16 0.144
Patients and relatives Distance home/hospital (one way kms) 16.25 11.50 (13.15–19.36) 15.71 11.71 (11.62–19.79) 17.14 11.37 (11.97–22.32) −1.44 0.657
Informal transport (€) 32.75 39.81 (21.99–43.52) 42.42 46.99 (26.02–58.81) 17.11 14.81 (10.37–23.85) 25.31 0.006
Lost income (€) 53.45 35.43 (43.88–63.03) 60.57 34.45 (48.55–72.59) 41.94 34.73 (26.13–57.75) 18.63 0.059
Total patients’ costs (€) 86.21 57.16 (70.76–101.66) 102.98 58.77 (82.48–123.49) 59.05 43.24 (39.36–78.73) 43.93 0.002
Total Costs   325.28 142.91 (286.64–363.91) 356.62 144.12 (306.34–406.91) 274.52 128.45 (216.06–332.99) 82.10 0.033
  1. CM Conventional monitoring; RM Remote monitoring
  2. Values are expressed as means and standard deviation (SD) (95% CI)
  3. Costs are concerned to the total 5-years follow up period. 3% discount rate applied to annual costs