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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of residents by level of social engagement in nursing homes in Madrid, Spaina

From: Social engagement within the facility increased life expectancy in nursing home residents: a follow-up study

Characteristic Overall Level of social engagement P valueb
Low/null Moderate High
No. of residents 382 (100) 124 (36.0) 179 (44.2) 79 (19.8)  
Age (years)      0.03
 65–74 61 (15.7) 15 (13.3) 27 (11.6) 19 (29.4)  
 75–79 70 (16.4) 21 (17.3) 33 (15.1) 16 (17.4)  
 80–84 102 (25.6) 31 (21.2) 50 (30.0) 21 (24.1)  
 85–89 81 (23.8) 37 (30.6) 34 (22.8) 10 (13.4)  
  ≥ 90 68 (18.5) 20 (17.6) 35 (20.5) 13 (15.7)  
Sex      0.01
 Women 200 (74.4) 79 (82.8) 87 (70.9) 34 (66.9)  
 Men 182 (25.6) 45 (17.2) 92 (29.1) 45 (33.1)  
Educational level      0.78
 Less than primary 188 (45.3) 60 (41.8) 90 (49.0) 38 (43.3)  
 Primary 143 (40.2) 49 (44.3) 66 (36.9) 28 (39.9)  
 Secondary or more 51 (14.6) 15 (13.9) 23 (14.1) 13 (16.8)  
Marital status      0.35
 Married 68 (14.2) 16 (11.3) 36 (15.3) 16 (17.1)  
 Single 113 (33.7) 44 (40.6) 51 (30.9) 18 (27.3)  
 Widowed/divorced 201 (52.1) 64 (48.1) 92 (53.8) 45 (55.5)  
Facility ownership      0.10
 Public/subsidized 285 (61.4) 89 (57.7) 142 (68.2) 54 (52.7)  
 Private 97 (38.6) 35 (42.3) 37 (31.8) 25 (47.3)  
Facility size (beds)      0.15
  < 100 51 (20.8) 18 (21.8) 22 (20.3) 11 (20.0)  
 100–299 138 (37.1) 47 (38.9) 56 (30.6) 35 (48.4)  
  ≥ 300 193 (42.1) 59 (39.3) 101 (49.1) 33 (31.6)  
Length of stay (years)      0.01
 0–1 117 (29.0) 29 (22.3) 56 (28.6) 32 (42.2)  
 2–4 122 (31.9) 40 (32.4) 54 (29.0) 28 (37.3)  
  ≥ 5 143 (39.1) 55 (45.3) 69 (42.4) 19 (20.4)  
Assigned caregiver      0.47
 Yes 57 (13.6) 18 (11.6) 29 (16.1) 10 (11.5)  
 No 325 (86.4) 106 (88.4) 150 (83.9) 69 (88.5)  
Frequency of external visits     0.22
 Monthly or less 144 (33.6) 54 (37.9) 71 (35.0) 19 (22.7)  
 Weekly 168 (45.4) 46 (39.0) 80 (47.2) 42 (53.0)  
 Daily 70 (21.0) 24 (23.2) 28 (17.8) 18 (24.3)  
No. of chronic conditions     0.27
 0–1 109 (30.0) 33 (32.0) 44 (24.6) 32 (38.6)  
 2–3 174 (45.9) 57 (42.6) 84 (49.4) 33 (44.1)  
  ≥ 4 99 (24.1) 34 (25.4) 51 (26.0) 14 (17.3)  
Functional dependency      0.08
 No 152 (35.0) 40 (29.7) 69 (33.4) 43 (48.2)  
 Mild 128 (34.5) 41 (33.3) 67 (39.4) 20 (26.0)  
 Moderate 102 (30.5) 43 (37.0) 43 (27.3) 16 (25.8)  
  1. aUnweighted counts (sampling-weighted percentages)
  2. bP value for homogeneity of sampling-weighted percentages across levels of social engagement