Skip to main content

Table 5 Factor loadings, class intercepts, class thresholds and classes means for the Fried, the SiMI and the WMI models

From: Revisiting the hypothesis of syndromic frailty: a cross-sectional study of the structural validity of the frailty phenotype

  Fried 3-Class model SiMI 4-Class model WMI 3-Class model Total
  Frail Pre-frail Robust Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 sample
Part A. Coefficients for the Fried LCA 3-class, FRéLE SiMI-uv 4-classes and FRéLE WMI-uv models
Factor loadings
Exhaustion N.A.* N.A. N.A. 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 N.A.
Physical Activities N.A. N.A. N.A. 4,10 4,10 4,10 4,10 4,61 4,61 4,61 N.A.
Grip strength N.A. N.A. N.A. 1,21 1,21 1,21 1,21 1,13 1,13 1,13 N.A.
Gait speed N.A. N.A. N.A. 2,17 2,17 2,17 2,17 3,38 3,38 3,38 N.A.
Weight lost (in Kg) N.A. N.A. N.A. −0,35 −0,35 −0,35 −0,35 −0,13 −0,13 −0,13 N.A.
Class thresholds or Intercepts
Exhaustion 0,16 −0,82 − 2954 43,15 43,15 43,15 43,15 53,23 62,42 73,76 N.A.
Physical Activities 1,26 −0,92 − 7706 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 57,96 69,88 121,53 N.A.
Grip strength 0,38 −0,81 − 3293 34,77 34,77 34,77 34,77 56,44 47,73 73,53 N.A.
Gait speed 3,32 −1,05 − 3275 44,28 44,28 44,28 44,28 83,54 79,10 100,00 N.A.
Weight lost (in Kg if > 0) N.A. N.A. N.A. 7,05 7,05 7,05 7,05 0,00 3,47 0,00 N.A.
Weight lost (1 if Kg > 4,5; else = 0) 1,05 1,27 3366 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,00 1,03 1,47 N.A.
Means N.A. N.A. N.A. 32.232 21,72 8,53 0,00 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
Part B. Associations of FRéLE and Fried classes with frailty components
Means on components
Exhaustion 42,72 57,77 72,13 43,20 50,00 65,40 77,30 46,70 62,80 75,30 63,10
Physical Activities 11,07 67,92 111,92 −16,00 28,66 91,50 146,14 47,00 65,80 127,50 82,98
Grip strength 40,72 53,16 68,40 40,20 43,12 60,00 81,20 56,00 45,60 76,00 59,22
Gait speed 49,49 79,16 103,20 33,76 59,70 91,79 120,83 86,10 77,70 101,90 87,72
Weight lost (in Kg if > 0) 8,42 7,15 0,00 12,11 4,35 3,88 4,25 7,65 3,58 4,21 7,37
Weight lost (1 if Kg > 0; else = 0) 43,7% 21,0% 0,00% 38,6% 21,8% 9,5% 3,2% 23,7% 12,6% 3,6% 13,2%
Part C. Associations of FRéLE classes and Fried classes with frailty risk factors
Means on risk factors
Age 84,6 80,4 75,9 83,3 83,9 78,0 73,0 79,60 81,40 75,20 78,10
Males 46,8% 48,9% 51,2% 61,4% 32,5% 50,4% 69,5% 50,7% 29,6% 70,7% 50,0%
Education 4,41 5,22 5,72 4,18 4,55 5,48 6,30 5,14 4,93 5,99 5,37
Self rated health 3,44 2,93 2,34 3,43 3,23 2,64 2,06 3,16 2,82 2,25 2,71
Chronic Diseases 4,60 3,80 2,50 4,70 4,30 3,10 2,20 4,07 3,50 2,38 3,25
Cognitive Impairment 21,5 23,4 24,8 20,5 22,3 24,2 25,5 23,2 23,4 24,8 23,90
Depressive symptoms 62,9% 27,7% 7,4% 65,1% 45,3% 15,0% 5,2% 46,2% 21,9% 5,1% 22,1%
Disability in IADL 93,2% 55,4% 23,4% 100,0% 85,4% 34,8% 8,8% 62,8% 58,0% 1,6% 44,4%
Disability in ADL 66,8% 30,3% 11,3% 84,1% 49,5% 17,7% 7,1% 39,6% 30,5% 10,0% 25,6%
Deceased 34,8% 14,5% 5,9% 40,9% 22,9% 9,5% 4,9% 20,7% 13,7% 6,3% 13,0%
Number of cases 207 627 807 47 411 874 309 422 628 591 1641
% in each class or class 12,5% 38,3% 49,2% 2,7% 25,1% 53,4% 18,8% 25,7% 38,3% 36,0%  
  1. *N.A.: Not Applicable