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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants according to phenotypic frailty status

From: Lack of association between circulating apelin level and frailty-related functional parameters in older adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Robust
(n = 21)
Prefrail
(n = 47)
Frail
(n = 12)
P
Sex, no. (%)     0.245
 Female 8 (38.1) 28 (59.6) 7 (58.3)  
 Male 13 (61.9) 19 (40.4) 5 (41.7)  
Age (years) 67.5 ± 6.5 69.7 ± 6.2 70.8 ± 5.0 0.257
Weight (kg) 71.7 ± 11.3 67.3 ± 10.2 63.3 ± 8.6 0.069
Height (cm) 161.7 ± 10.0 158.9 ± 8.7 157.2 ± 5.6 0.313
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 3.2 26.6 ± 3.0 25.7 ± 3.8 0.297
Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.83 ± 0.36 3.84 ± 0.28 3.73 ± 0.25 0.559
Frailty index (range, 0–1) 0.070 ± 0.035 0.126 ± 0.063* 0.230 ± 0.115*,† < 0.001
Grip strength (kg) 32.7 ± 7.8 27.9 ± 8.9 20.9 ± 6.6*,† 0.001
Gait speed (m/s) 1.21 ± 0.18 1.03 ± 0.33 0.75 ± 0.28*,† < 0.001
Chair stand (s) 9.6 ± 4.2 11.3 ± 8.2 14.5 ± 7.2 0.193
SPPB score (range, 0–12) 11.5 ± 1.0 10.3 ± 2.7 9.5 ± 2.2* 0.046
Muscle mass (kg) 25.3 ± 4.9 22.5 ± 5.6 20.0 ± 3.6* 0.021
ASMI (kg/m2) 7.29 ± 1.26 6.78 ± 1.26 6.23 ± 0.99 0.065
Sarcopenia, no. (%) 0 (0.0) 7 (14.9) 5 (41.7) 0.006
Use of ≥5 prescription drugs, no. (%) 8 (38.1%) 23 (48.9) 8 (66.7) 0.287
Multimorbidity, no. (%) 15 (71.4) 35 (74.5) 11 (91.7) 0.382
ADL disability, no. (%) 0 (0.0) 3 (6.4) 2 (16.7) 0.163
IADL disability, no. (%) 1 (4.8) 15 (31.9) 8 (66.7) 0.001
Social frailty score (range, 0–5) 0.95 ± 0.67 1.40 ± 1.10 2.08 ± 1.00* 0.009
Mini-Cognition score (range, 0–5) 4.33 ± 0.86 3.64 ± 1.24 3.27 ± 1.27* 0.026
Cognitive dysfunction, no. (%) 0 (0.0) 3 (6.4) 4 (33.3) 0.003
PHQ-2 score (range, 0–6) 0.86 ± 0.85 1.45 ± 1.94 3.82 ± 1.72*,† < 0.001
Depression, no. (%) 0 (0.0) 5 (10.6) 8 (66.7) < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise specified. Bold means that values are statistically significant. Comparisons between the three groups were investigated using the analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis via Tukey’s honest significance test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables. * and † indicate statistically significant differences of continuous variables from the robust and prefrail groups, respectively. SPPB short physical performance battery, ASMI appendicular skeletal muscle mass index, ADL activity of daily living, IADL instrumental activity of daily living, PHQ-2 patient health questionnaire-2