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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis on the factors potentially associated with having at least one EDA or HA, by setting

From: Emergency department and hospital admissions among people with dementia living at home or in nursing homes: results of the European RightTimePlaceCare project on their frequency, associated factors and costs

  Nursing Home (n = 646) Home Care (n = 1054)
PwD with at least one EDA or HA (n = 89; 13.8%) PwD without EDA or HA (n = 557; 86.2%) p_value Unadjusted OR [95%CI] Adjusted OR [95%CI] PwD with at least one EDA or HA (N = 195; 18.5%) PwD without EDA or HA (n = 859; 81.5%) p_value Unadjusted OR [95%CI] Adjusted OR [95%CI]
Age (years) n (%)    0.120      0.562   
 65–80 years 17 (19.1%) 151 (27.1%)   Reference Reference 65 (33.3%) 307 (35.7%)   Reference Reference
  ≥ 81 years 72 (80.9%) 406 (72.9%)   1.58 (0.90–2.76) 1.94 (0.98–3.85) 130 (66.7%) 552 (64.3%)   1.11 (0.80–1.55) 1.12 (0.78–1.61)
Sex, n (%)    0.085      0.282   
 Female 60 (67.4%) 426 (76.5%)   Reference Reference 119 (61.0%) 560 (65.2%)   Reference Reference
 Male 29 (32.6%) 131 (23.5%)   1.57 (0.97–2.55) 1.55 (0.88–2.75) 76 (39.0%) 299 (34.8%)   1.20 (0.87–1.65) 1.06 (0.74–1.52)
S-MMSE score, n (%),a    0,954      0,175   
 Mild dementia 8 (12.5%) 58 (12.8%)   Reference Reference 42 (24.6%) 198 (26.3%)   Reference Reference
 Moderate dementia 37 (57.8%) 242 (53.3%)   1.11 (0.49–2.51) 1.00 (0.42–2.38) 81 (47.4%) 396 (52.6%)   0,96 (0,64-1,45) 0.93 (0.60–1.45)
 Severe dementia 19 (29.7%) 154 (33.9%)   0.89 (0.37–2.16) 1.13 (0.46–2.78) 48 (28.1%) 159 (21.1%)   1.42 (0.90–2.26) 1.3 (0.78–2.17)
Weight loss, n (%)    0.724      0.002   
 No 80 (89.0%) 485 (86.6%)   Reference Reference 140 (70.9%) 703 (81.4%)   Reference Reference
 Yes 9 (11.0%) 72 (13.4%)   0.80 (0.38–1.67) 0.72 (0.32–1.62) 55 (29.1%) 156 (18.6%)   1.79 (1.25–2.57) 1.73 (1.17–2.56)
Polypharmacy, n (%)    0.049      < 0.001   
 No 20 (22.5%) 186 (33.4%)   Reference Reference 51 (26.2%) 399 (46.4%)   Reference Reference
 Yes 69 (77.5%) 371 (66.6%)   1.73 (1.02–2.93) 1.96 (1.03–3.75) 144 (73.8%) 460 (53.6%)   2.45 (1.73–3.46) 2.48 (1.70–3.62)
Falls in preceding 3 months n (%)    0.009      0.001   
 No 55 (61.4%) 419 (75.1%)   Reference Reference 137 (70.1%) 702 (81.7%)   Reference Reference
 Yes 34 (38.6%) 138 (24.9%)   1.90 (1.19–3.05) 1.66 (0.96–2.86) 58 (29.9%) 157 (18.3%)   1.91 (1.34–2.71) 1.64 (1.12–2.41)
Charlson Comorbidity Index n (%)    0.906      0.076   
  ≤ 2 55 (61.8%) 349 (62.7%)   Reference Reference 131 (67.2%) 632 (73.6%)   Reference Reference
  > 2 34 (38.2%) 208 (37.3%)   1.04 (0.65–1,64) 1.04 (0.61–1.77) 64 (32.8%) 227 (26.4%)   1.36 (0.97–1.90) 1.13 (0.78–1.64)
Katz Index, n (%)    0.221      0.029   
 Severe 60 (67.4%) 327 (58.9%)   2.94 (0.69–12.58) 2.00 (0.44–9.04) 84 (43.3%) 281 (33.1%)   1.60 (1.01–2.54) 1.24 (0.72–2.15)
 Moderate 27 (30.3%) 196 (35.3%)   2.20 (0.50–9.72) 1.96 (0.43–8.97) 80 (41.2%) 407 (47.9%)   1.06 (0.67–1.67) 0.95 (0.57–1.58)
 Mild 2 (2.2%) 32 (5.8%)   Reference Reference 30 (15.5%) 161 (19.0%)   Reference Reference
NPI-Q Severity, mean (SD) 7.7 (6.0) 6.8 (5.7) 0.174 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 1.02 (0.97–1.07) 9.9 (6.1) 9.0 (6.2) 0.069 1.02 (1.00–1.05) 0.99 (0.96–1.02)
Zarit Burden Index n (%)    0.511      0.018   
 Little or no burden 47 (53.4%) 264 (47.6%)   Reference Reference 37 (19.0%) 227 (26.5%)   Reference Reference
 Mild burden 28 (31.8%) 211 (38.0%)   0.75 (0.45–1.23) 0.6 (0.34–1.1) 88 (45.1%) 398 (46,5%)   1.36 (0.89–2.06) 1.67 (1.04–2.66)
 Moderate to severe burden 13 (14.8%) 80 (14.4%)   0.91 (0.47–1.77) 1.00 (0.47–2.15) 70 (35.9%) 231 (27.0%)   1.86 (1.20–2.88) 1.76 (1.04–2.98)
  1. CI Confidence Interval, EDA Emergency Department Admission, HA Hospital Admission, OR Odds Ratio, PwD People with Dementia
  2. a Mild Dementia (S-MMSE score > 21), Moderate Dementia (S-MMSE score 10–21), or Severe Dementia (S-MMSE score < 10 or not evaluated due to impaired cognitive or functional status)