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Table 2 Results at 4-month follow-up and effect of intervention based on intention-to-treat analysis

From: Effects of a multicomponent high intensity exercise program on physical function and health-related quality of life in older adults with or at risk of mobility disability after discharge from hospital: a randomised controlled trial

  Intervention group 4 months, mean (SD) Control group 4 months, mean (SD) Mean between group differencea 95% confidence interval P value Effect sized
Physical function
 SPPBb 9.3 (2.8) 9.3 (2.7) 0.8 −0.3 – 1.8 0.151 0.38
 6-min walk test (m) 419.3 (122.9) 412.7 (138.3) 30.9 2.1 – 59.8 0.036 0.56
 Berg Balance Scaleb 50.0 (7.0) 50.5 (7.7) −0.6 −2.2 – 0.9 0.402 0.22
 Grip strength (kg) 28.0 (8.3) 26.5 (9.8) 1.1 −0.5 – 2.7 0.178 0.36
 BMI 25.9 (3.5) 27.1 (5.9) 0.1 −0.4 – 0.6 0.672 0.12
HRQOL (SF-36)
 PCSc 42.9 (11.2) 38.5 (10.3) 7.1 3.1 – 11.1 0.001 0.94
 MCSc 48.4 (8.1) 49.8 (7.8) −0.7 −4.0 – 2.7 0.694 0.10
  1. SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, BMI Body Mass Index, calculated using the formula weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, SD Standard deviation, HRQOL Health Related Quality of Life, SF-36 the medical Outcome 36 –Item Short Form Survey, PCS Physical component summary, MCS Mental component summary. Statistically significant p-values are in bold. The level of significance was set at 0.05
  2. aMean between group difference refers to difference between outcome at baseline and 4-month-follow up
  3. bHigher scores reflect better physical function
  4. cHigher scores reflect better HRQOL
  5. dEffect size = Cohen’s d