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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample. Means, standard deviations (SD), numbers and percentages

From: Effects of a multicomponent high intensity exercise program on physical function and health-related quality of life in older adults with or at risk of mobility disability after discharge from hospital: a randomised controlled trial

Characteristics Total (N = 88) Intervention group (n = 44) Control group (n = 44)
Age in years, mean (SD) 78.3 (5.5) 78.6 (5.7) 77.9 (5.2)
Sex, female n (%) 43 (48.9) 17 (38.6) 26 (59.1)
Living alone, n (%) 45 (51.1) 22 (50.0) 23 (52.3)
Education, n (%)
 Less than bachelor’s degree 35 (39.8) 12 (27.3) 23 (52.3)
 Bachelor’s degree 32 (36.4) 20 (45.5) 12 (27.3)
 More than bachelor’s degree 21 (23.9) 12 (27.3) 9 (20.5)
 Length of stay, in days, median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4.8) 3 (1–4)
 Number of comorbidities, mean (SD) 4.7 (2.3) 4.2 (2.5) 4.8 (2.1)
Hospital admission diagnosis (ICD-10), n (%)
 Mental and behavioral disorders 4 (4.5) 2 (4.5) 2 (4.5)
 Diseases of the nervous system 5 (5.7) 2 (4.5) 3 (6.8)
 Diseases of the eye and adnexa/ear and mastoid process 6 (6.8) 5 (11.4) 1 (2.3)
 Diseases of the circulatory system 31 (35.2) 16 (36.4) 15 (34.1)
 Diseases of the respiratory system 14 (15.9) 8 (18.2) 6 (13.6)
 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 5 (5.7) 4 (9.1) 1 (2.3)
 Diseases of the genitourinary system 9 (10.2) 2 (4.5) 7 (15.9)
 Other diseases 14 (15.9) 5 (11.4) 9 (20.5)
 Fall since discharge, n (%) 25 (28.4) 11 (25.0) 14 (31.8)
Physical function:
 Short Physical Performance Battery, mean (SD)a 8.7 (2.3) 8.6 (2.3) 8.9 (2.2)
 Gait speed m/s, mean (SD), n = 85 (42 int. group and 43 cont. group) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2)
 Grip strength kg, mean (SD) 26.3 (9.1) 26.8 (8.7) 25.8 (9.5)
 Berg Balance Scale, mean (SD)a 48.9 (6.8) 48.8 (6.6) 48.9 (7.1)
 6-min walk test m, mean (SD) 387.4 (115) 378.8 (109.8) 396.1 (120.7)
 Body mass index, mean (SD) 26.9 (5.4) 26.1 (5.4) 27.8 (5.4)
International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), n = 69
 High, n (%) 7 (10.2) 4 (10.8) 3 (9.4)
 Moderate, n (%) 25 (36.2) 14 (37.8) 11 (34.4)
 Low, n (%) 37 (53.6) 19 (51.4) 18 (56.3)
Health related quality of life (SF-36):b
 Physical functioning, n = 88 (44 int. group and 44 cont. group) 58.9 (23.3) 57.1 (22.7) 60.7 (24.0)
 Role physical, n = 83 (41 int. group and 42 cont. group) 47.0 (27.8) 42.9 (27.5) 51.0 (27.9)
 Bodily pain, n = 83 (42 int. group and 41 cont. group) 56.6 (25.9) 55.8 (28.4) 57.4 (23.5)
 General health, n = 85 (43 int. group and 42 cont. group) 52.2 (21.6) 50.5 (21.2) 54.1 (22.2)
 Vitality, n = 86 (43 int. group and 43 cont. group) 44.9 (17.5) 44.8 (15.5) 44.9 (19.6)
 Social functioning, n = 87 (44 int. group and 43 cont. group) 67.5 (28.1) 67.3 (26.9) 67.7 (29.5)
 Role emotional, n = 83 (43 int. group and 40 cont. group) 59.4 (23.2) 62.2 (21.9) 56.5 (24.4)
 Mental health, n = 85 (43 int. group and 42 cont. group) 67.7 (14.4) 66.7 (15.2) 68.7 (13.6)
 Physical component summary, n = 79 (40 int. group and 39 cont. group) 39.0 (10.1) 37.3 (10.5) 40.7 (9.5)
 Mental component summary, n = 79 (40 int. group and 39 cont. group) 47.7 (8.1) 48.0 (8.7) 47.3 (7.5)
  1. N number of individuals, ICD International Classification of Disease, BMI Body Mass Index, calculated using the formula weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.
  2. SF-36 = the medical Outcome 36 –Item Short Form Survey
  3. aHigher scores reflect better physical function
  4. bHigher scores reflect better HRQOL