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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population, participants and non-participants

From: Health care costs of injury in the older population: a prospective multicentre cohort study in the Netherlands

  Participants Non-participants P-value
Participants, n 1910 3594  
Sex, n (%)    < 0.001
Male 745 (39.0) 1170 (32.6)  
Female 1165 (61.0) 2424 (67.4)  
Age, mean (SD) 78.3 (8.4) 81.2 (8.1) < 0.001
Age group, n (%)
65–69 378 (19.8) 376 (10.5)  
70–74 321 (16.8) 451 (12.5)  
75–79 353 (18.5) 613 (17.1)  
80–84 373 (19.5) 793 (22.1)  
85–89 281 (14.7) 804 (22.4)  
 ≥ 90 204 (10.7) 557 (15.5)  
Cause of trauma, n (%)a    < 0.001
Home and Leisure: Falls 1239 (64.9) 2330 (64.8)  
 Home and Leisure: Other 205 (10.7) 217 (6.0)  
Traffic 381 (19.9) 374 (10.4)  
Sport 41 (2.1) 23 (0.6)  
Other1 36 (1.9) 52 (1.4)  
Most common types of injury, n (%)2
Hip fracture 792 (41.5) 1375 (38.3) 0.020
TBI 489 (25.6) 917 (25.5) 0.944
 Pelvic injury 137 (7.2) 175 (4.9) < 0.001
Tibia, complex foot or femur fracture 169 (8.8) 300 (7.6) 0.526
Shoulder and upper arm injury 156 (8.2) 318 (8.8) 0.392
Rib fracture 173 (9.1) 222 (6.2) < 0.001
Radius, ulna, hand fracture 98 (5.1) 165 (4.6) 0.371
ISS, mean (SD) b 7.0 (3.9) 6.6 (4.1) < 0.001
ISS, n (%)b
  < 4 345 (18.1) 774 (21.5)  
4–8 526 (27.5) 843 (23.5)  
9–15 979 (51.3) 1606 (44.7)  
  ≥ 16 59 (3.1) 103 (2.9)  
Frailty status, n (%)c
Not frail (GFI 0–3) 907 (47.4) n.a.  
Frail (GFI ≥4) 662 (34.7) n.a.  
Unknown 296 (15.5)   
Comorbidity status, n (%)d    
No comorbidity 381 (19.9) n.a.  
One comorbidities 565 (29.6) n.a.  
Two comorbidities 408 (21.4) n.a.  
Three or more comorbidities 523 (29.4) n.a.  
Died during study period, n (%) 256 (13.4) n.a.  
  1. ISS Injury Severity Score, SD standard deviation, TBI traumatic brain injury, n.a. not available
  2. a participants: 8 missing values (0.4%); non participants: 598 (16.6%)
  3. b participants: 1 missing values (0.1%); non participants: 268 (7.5%)
  4. c 215 (11.3%) participants completed the GFI questionnaire partially. For 170 (8.9%) of the patients with missing values for some GFI items, it could be determined with certainty whether they had an GFI score of 0–3 or ≥ 4
  5. d participants: 33 missing values (1.7%)
  6. 1includes occupational injuries, self-harm, interpersonal violence and unspecified injuries
  7. 2only the most common injury types (number of cases > 5%) are shown