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Table 3 Comparative analysis of the primary and secondary study end-points in patients of the PEA and Control groups a,b

From: Precision implementation of early ambulation in elderly patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized-controlled clinical trial

  PEA group
(n = 89)
Control group
(n = 89)
p-value
Primary end-point
 PLOS (days) 9.04 ± 3.08 10.09 ± 3.32 0.031
Secondary end-point
 Mortality within 90 days (%) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 1.000
 Incidence of early discharge 41 (41.6) 24 (27) 0.009
 Duration of ICU stay (days) 2.98 ± 1.40 3.10 ± 1.50 0.570
 Time of drainage tube retention (days) 3.82 ± 0.92 3.89 ± 0.82 0.648
 Time of first bowel movement (days) 3.18 ± 1.23 3.97 ± 1.26 <0.001
 Time of urinary catheter retention (days) 3.00 ± 1.02 3.22 ± 0.88 0.129
 Incidence of acute kidney injury (%) 6 (6.7) 6 (6.7) 1.000
 Number of patients with renal-replacement therapy 0 1 (1.1) 0.323
 Incidence of pulmonary atelectasis (%) 11 (12.4) 17 (19.1) 0.174
 Incidence of pulmonary infection (%) 11 (12.4) 13 (14.6) 0.613
  1. Note: Data represent the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables, and number of patients (n) and percentage (%) for categorical variables
  2. PLOS postoperative length of stay in hospital;
  3. a: simple linear regression (unadjusted)
  4. b: Missing data: on pulmonary atelectasis for two patients in the PEA group and two patients in the Control group