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Table 2 Baseline differences between the socially robust and socially declined groups during the two-year follow-up

From: Physical frailty predicts the development of social frailty: a prospective cohort study

Variables Socially Robust (n = 277) Socially declined (n = 65) P-value
Age, y, mean (SD) 72.0 (5.3) 75.0 (6.3) < 0.001
Women, n (%) 167 (60) 50 (77) 0.012
Height, cm, mean (SD) 157.2 (8.2) 153.2 (7.7) < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) 22.7 (3.0) 22.2 (3.0) 0.292
Medication, n, median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 2 (0–3) 0.599
Multimorbidity, n (%) 66 (28) 37 (34) 0.184
MMSE, median (IQR) 29 (27–30) 28 (26–30) 0.081
Education, y, median (IQR) 12 (12–14) 12 (12–14) 0.933
GDS, median (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2) 0.035
History of falls, n (%) 39 (17) 37 (34) 0.030
TMIG-IC, median (IQR) 13 (13–13) 13 (13–13) 0.723
Gait speed, m/s (SD) 1.5 (0.2) 1.4 (0.2) 0.006
Handgrip strength, kg (SD) 29.3 (7.8) 25.6 (6.1) < 0.001
MVPA, METs・hour (SD) 3.4 (2.6) 2.5 (1.9) 0.012
Physically any-frailty 83 (30) 27 (42) 0.072
Subdomain of physical frailty
 Slow gait speed, n (%) 4 (1) 2 (3) 0.320
 Weakness, n (%) 8 (3) 4 (6) 0.198
 Exhaustion, n (%) 42 (15) 13 (20) 0.339
 Low activity, n (%) 16 (6) 8 (12) 0.064
 Weight loss, n (%) 33 (12) 8 (12) 0.930
Socially Robust, n (%) 277 (100)
Socially pre-frail, n (%) 53 (82)
Socially frail, n (%) 12 (18)
Subdomain of social frailty
 Financial difficulty, n (%) 11 (3)
 Living alone, n (%) 11 (3)
 Lack of social activity, n (%) 50 (15)
 Lack of contact with neighbors, n (%) 6 (2)
  1. SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, GDS Geriatric depression scale, TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, MVPA Moderate to vigorous physical activity
  2. χ2 test or Fisher exact test for proportions, Student t-test for parametric variables and Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric variables