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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in participants

From: Physical frailty predicts the development of social frailty: a prospective cohort study

Variables Overall (n = 342) Physically Robust (n = 232) Physically any-frail (n = 110) P-value
Age, y, mean (SD) 72.6 (5.6) 72.2 (5.1) 73.4 (6.3) 0.079
Women, n (%) 217 (64) 146 (63) 71 (65) 0.772
Height, cm, mean (SD) 156.4 (8.2) 156.6 (8.2) 156.0 (8.4) 0.488
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) 22.6 (3.0) 22.4 (2.8) 23.0 (3.3) 0.090
Medication, n, median (IQR) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–3) 0.088
Comorbidities
 Hypertension, n (%) 157 (46) 101 (44) 56 (51) 0.201
 Diabetes, n (%) 39 (11) 28 (12) 11 (10) 0.472
 Kidney disease, n (%) 13 (4) 7 (3) 6 (6) 0.363
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 27 (8) 19 (8) 8 (7) 0.769
 Osteoporosis, n (%) 41 (12) 24 (10) 17 (16) 0.174
 Multimorbidity, n (%) 103 (30) 66 (28) 37 (34) 0.329
MMSE, median (IQR) 29 (27–30) 29 (27–30) 29 (27–30) 0.273
Education, y, median (IQR) 12 (12–14) 12 (12–14) 12 (12–14) 0.916
GDS, median (IQR) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–0) 1.5 (0–3) < 0.001
History of falls, n (%) 76 (22) 39 (17) 37 (34) < 0.001
TMIG-IC, median (IQR) 13 (13–13) 13 (13–13) 13 (13–13) 0.318
Gait speed, m/s (SD) 1.5 (0.2) 1.6 (0.2) 1.4 (0.2) < 0.001
Handgrip strength, kg (SD) 28.6 (7.6) 29.2 (7.5) 27.5 (7.7) 0.065
MVPA, METs・hour (SD) 3.2 (2.5) 3.6 (2.6) 2.3 (2.0) < 0.001
Subdomain of physical frailty
 Slow gait speed, n (%) 6 (2) 6 (5)
 Weakness, n (%) 12 (4) 12 (11)
 Exhaustion, n (%) 55 (16) 55 (50)
 Low activity, n (%) 24 (7) 24 (22)
 Weight loss, n (%) 41 (12) 41 (37)
  1. SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, GDS Geriatric depression scale, TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, MVPA Moderate to vigorous physical activity
  2. χ2 test or Fisher exact test for proportions, Student t-test for parametric variables and Mann–Whitney U test for non-parametric variables