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Table 2 The laboratory findings, complications, treatment and clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19 among 3 groups

From: Clinical characteristics and manifestations in older patients with COVID-19

  Younger (n = 102) Middle-aged (n = 157) Older (n = 307)
White blood cells (109/L) 5.57 (4.16–7.18) 5.37 (4.28–7.07) 5.73 (4.53–7.56)
Neutrophils (109/L) 2.93 (2.11–4.66) 3.14 (2.55–4.59) 3.87 (2.73–5.56)*#
Lymphocytes (109/L) 1.52 (1.09–2.02) 1.31 (0.90–1.73) 1.01 (0.68–1.57)*#
  < 0.8 13 (12.7%) 29 (18.5%) 101 (32.9%)*#
Hemoglobin (g/L) 133.0 (122.8–145.0) 125.0 (116.5–135.5)* 121.0 (111.0–132.0)*#
Platelet (109/L) 220.5 (177.3–272.3) 231.0 (178.0–295.5) 208.0 (155.0–261.0)#
  < 100 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.3%) 19 (6.2%)*#
CRP (mg/L) 2.53 (0.50–11.88) 5.60 (0.71–37.40) 27.70 (2.64–72.85)*#
ALT (U/L) 26.0 (17.8–48.0) 27.0 (18.0–51.0) 23.0 (16.0–36.0)#
AST (U/L) 23.0 (17.0–33.3) 25.0 (19.0–37.0) 27.0 (19.0–39.0)*
ALP (U/L) 57.0 (45.0–69.3) 64.5 (52.0–81.3)* 66.0 (55.0–81.0)*
GGT (U/L) 23.0 (15.0–39.3) 29.5 (18.0–51.0) 27.0 (17.0–47.0)
Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 10.1 (7.2–13.0) 10.2 (7.5–13.7) 11.1 (8.4–15.2)*#
Albumin (g/L) 41.5 (38.4–44.7) 39.4 (36.6–42.1)* 36.6 (33.1–39.3)*#
  < 30 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 18 (5.9%)*#
Urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 4.11 (3.10–5.42) 4.53 (3.40–5.61) 5.40 (4.28–7.41)*#
Creatinine (μmol/L) 61.0 (48.8–72.0) 55.0 (46.5–67.5) 63.0 (52.0–75.0)#
Blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.99 (4.59–5.87) 5.36 (4.83–6.76)* 5.80 (5.04–7.43)*#
Creatine kinase (U/L) 61.0 (44.0–108.0) 56.0 (35.0–82.5) 60.0 (42.0–94.5)
LDH (U/L) 189.0 (164.8–298.5) 227.0 (187.0–281.0) 265.0 (210.0–363.0)*#
CK-MB (ng/mL) 0.64 (0.44–0.88) 0.75 (0.54–1.05) 1.27 (0.90–2.25)*#
cTnI (ng/mL) 0.006 (0.006–0.006) 0.006 (0.006–0.006) 0.008 (0.006–0.025)*#
Complications
 ARDS 15 (14.7%) 35 (22.3%) 88 (28.7%)*
 Acute cardiac injury 4/91 (4.4%) 5/154 (3.2%) 66/306 (21.6%)*#
  With history of cardiovascular disease 0/5 (0.0%) 0/53 (0.0%) 56/178 (31.5%)#
  Without history of cardiovascular disease 4/86 (4.7%) 5/101 (5.0%) 10/128 (7.8%)
 Heart failure (elevated BNP) 1/72 (1.4%) 5/132 (3.8%) 39/269 (14.5%)*#
 Novel or worsening arrhythmia 21 (20.6%) 26 (16.6%) 71 (23.1%)
 Acute liver injury 9 (8.8%) 11 (7.0%) 35 (11.4%)
 Acute kidney injury 2 (2.0%) 1 (0.6%) 13 (4.2%)
 Skeletal muscle injury 9/102 (8.8%) 8/150 (5.3%) 20/285 (7.0%)
Treatment
 Antiviral therapy 97 (95.1%) 150 (95.5%) 295 (96.1%)
 Antibiotic therapy 66 (64.7%) 114 (72.6%) 230 (74.9%)
 Glucocorticoids 27 (26.5%) 42 (26.8%) 127 (41.4%)*#
Oxygen support
 Nasal cannula 71 (69.6%) 111 (70.7%) 220 (71.7%)
 Non-invasive ventilation (ie, face mask) 9 (8.8%) 25 (15.9%) 65 (21.2%)*
 Invasive mechanical ventilation 1 (1.0%) 4 (2.5%) 12 (3.9%)
Severe 49 (48.0%) 99 (63.1%)* 254 (82.7%)*#
Clinical outcome
 Discharge 100 (98.0%) 150 (95.5%) 250 (81.4%)*#
 Death 2 (2.0%) 7 (4.5%) 57 (18.6%)*#
  1. *P < 0.05 vs younger group; #P < 0.05 vs middle-aged group. CRP C-reactive protein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, CK-MB creatine kinase-myocardial isoenzyme, cTnI cardiac troponin I ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome