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Table 3 Predictors of mortality in COVID-19 positive patients by binary logistic regression models (univariate and multivariate model 1&2)

From: Older age and frailty are the chief predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to an acute medical unit in a secondary care setting- a cohort study

Characteristics Univariate model
OR (95% CI)
P-Value Multivariate model 1
OR (95% CI)
P-Value Multivariate model 2
OR (95% CI)
P-Value
Age 1.06 (1.03–1.09) < 0.001 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 0.03   
Gender, Male 0.83 (0.48–1.46) 0.53     
Ethnicity, Caucasian 1.38 (0.59–3.20) 0.45     
Care home resident 3.48 (1.57–6.47) < 0.001 1.12 (0.52–2.40) 0.77   
Frailty 8.71 (4.56–16.6) < 0.001 5.1 (2.3–11.60) < 0.001   
Smoking 1.75 (0.99–3.05) 0.05 1.57 (0.81–3.01) 0.18   
Weight 0.96 (0.95–0.98) < 0.001     
BMI 0.90 (0.86–0.95) < 0.001     
Hypertension 1.60 (0.95–2.87) 0.07     
Diabetes mellitus 0.76 (0.41–1.38) 0.36     
CVD 2.77 (1.58–4.88) < 0.001 1.20 (0.61–2.40) 0.59   
IHD/MI 1.47 (0.79–2.76) 0.22     
CCF 2.94 (1.43–6.02) 0.003     
CVA 3.04 (1.36–6.77) 0.006     
CKD (stage 3–5) 1.15 (0.58–2.29) 0.67     
Cancer 0.67 (0.24–1.83) 0.44     
Respiratory diseases 1.88 (1.05–3.40) 0.035 1.51 (0.75–3.06) 0.24   
On RASi treatment 0.61 (0.32–1.17) 0.14     
Immunosuppression 1.50 (0.48–4.90) 0.47     
Haemoglobin 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.16     
Neutrophil count 1.08 (1.01–1.14) 0.02    0.95 (0.85–1.04) 0.28
Lymphocyte count 0.59 (0.36–0.98) 0.04    1.19 (0.66–2.10) 0.55
Neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio 1.05 (1.01–1.08) 0.002    1.05 (0.99–1.11) 0.06
Platelet count 0.99 (0.96–1.00) 0.31     
Albumin 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.99     
Bilirubin 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.44     
Alanine transaminase 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.45     
Alkaline phosphatase 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 0.27     
C-reactive protein 1.01 (1.0–1.010) 0.010    1.0 (0.99–1.00) 0.26
eGFR 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.001    0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.01
Acute kidney injury 3.60 (1.96–6.65) < 0.001    1.78 (0.80–3.99) 0.16
  1. Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age, care home resident, frailty, smoking, CVD, and respiratory diseases
  2. Multivariate model 2: adjusted for neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, eGFR, and acute kidney injury
  3. BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardio vascular disease; includes at least one of the following- ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive cardiac failure (CCF), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), CKD Chronic kidney disease, RASi Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Respiratory diseases include a composite of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by CKD-EPI equation, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval