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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 positive patients at hospital admission

From: Older age and frailty are the chief predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to an acute medical unit in a secondary care setting- a cohort study

Characteristics Total
215
Group-1
Alive
129
Group-2 Deceased
86
P-Value (Alive vs Deceased)
Age 74 (60–82) 67 (57–79) 80 (73–86) < 0.001
Gender, Male 133 (61.9) 82 (63.5) 51 (59.3) 0.53
Ethnicity, Caucasian 188 (87.4) 111 (86) 77 (89.5) 0.45
Care home resident 60 (27.9) 23 (17.8) 37 (43) < 0.001
Frailty 110 (51.2) 41 (37.3) 69 (62.7) < 0.001
Smoking 120 (55.8) 65 (50.4) 55 (63.9) 0.05
Weight 78 (67–92) 84.5 (71.6–100) 70 (63–84) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 28 (24–32) 29.4 (26–34) 26 (23–29) < 0.001
Hypertension 114 (53) 62 (48.1) 52 (60.5) 0.07
Diabetes mellitus 65 (30.2) 42 (32.5) 23 (26.7) 0.36
CVD 93 (43.3) 43 (33.3) 50 (58.1) < 0.001
IHD and MI 53 (24.7) 28 (21.7) 25 (29.1) 0.22
CCF 39 (18.1) 15 (11.6) 24 (27.9) 0.002
CVA 30 (14) 11 (8.5) 19 (22.1) 0.005
CKD (stage 3–5) 42 (19.5) 24 (18.6) 18 (20.9) 0.67
Cancer 19 (8.8) 13 (10.1) 6 (7) 0.43
Respiratory diseases 65 (30.2) 32 (24.8) 33 (38.4) 0.03
On RASi treatment 54 (25) 37 (28.7) 17 (19.8) 0.09
Immunosuppression 12 (5.6) 6 (4.6) 6 (7) 0.47
Trial participation 39 (18.1) 27 (20.9) 12 (13.9) 0.19
Presenting complaint
 Shortness of breath 172 (80) 100 (77.5) 72 (83.7) 0.27
 Fever 98 (45.6) 66 (51.2) 32 (37.2) 0.08
 Cough 122 (56.7) 92 (71.3) 30 (34.8) < 0.001
Mechanical ventilation 24 (11.2) 12 (9.3) 12 (13.9) 0.20
Non-invasive ventilation 16 (7.5) 9 (7.0) 7 (5.4) 0.75
Intubation & Ventilation 8 (3.7) 3 (3.5) 5 (5.8) 0.19
Hospital inpatient (days) 5 (2–10) 5 (2–10) 5 (3–9) 0.47
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range) and p-Value by Man-Whitney U test
  2. Categorical variables are expressed as number (%) and p-Value by Chi-square test
  3. Weight missing in 12/215, BMI missing in 15/215
  4. BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardio vascular disease; includes at least one of the following- ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), congestive cardiac failure (CCF), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), CKD Chronic kidney disease, RASi Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Respiratory diseases include a composite of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis