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Table 2 Result of unconditional mean model (Model 1), unconditional growth model (Model 2) and final model (Model 3)

From: Changes in the provision of instrumental support by older adults in nine European countries during 2004—2015: a panel data analysis

  Model 1: Unconditional mean model (nb = 34838) Model 2: Unconditional growth model (nb = 34838) Model 3 (nb = 34838)
Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence Interval)
Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence Interval)
Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence Interval)
Fixed effects
Part i: For intercept
Intercept 0.389*** (0.374,0.405) 0.526*** (0.494,0.559) 1.283 (0.993,1.659)
Sex
  Women      1  
  Men      0.881 (0.747,1.039)
Baseline age      0.930*** (0.921,0.940)
Sex x Baseline age
  Women x baseline age      1  
  Men x baseline age      1.017** (1.005,1.028)
Education
  Low      1  
  Middle      1.099 (0.938,1.288)
  High      1.271** (1.067,1.513)
Employment status
  Employed      1  
  Retired      1.301*** (1.173,1.443)
  Not employed      1.109 (0.982,1.252)
Region
  Southern Europe      0.597*** (0.454,0.784)
  Central Europe      1  
  Northern Europe      1.373* (1.039,1.813)
Marital status
  With partner      1  
  No partner      0.992 (0.822,1.197)
Number of living children     0.978 (0.940,1.018)
Self-perceived health
  Poor      1  
  Good      1.122 (0.992,1.269)
Household size      0.916*** (0.872,0.963)
Sex x Marital status a
  Women x with partner      1  
  Men x no partner      0.741** (0.619,0.888)
Region x Sex a
  Central x women      1  
  South x men      0.692*** (0.561,0.853)
  North x men      1.228* (1.017,1.484)
Region x Education a
  Central x low      1  
  South x middle      1.640*** (1.260,2.136)
  South x high      1.269 (0.897,1.795)
  North x middle      1.106 (0.885,1.382)
  North x high      0.95 (0.752,1.199)
Region x Marital status a
  Central x with partner      1  
  South x no partner      0.631* (0.437,0.911)
  North x no partner      1.547** (1.144,2.091)
Region x Number of children a
  South x number of children     0.917* (0.853,0.987)
  Central x number of children     1  
  North x number of children     1.041 (0.973,1.114)
Part ii: For time slope
Time    0.926*** (0.917,0.934) 0.916*** (0.893,0.940)
Sex x Age x Time
  Women x age x time      0.998** (0.997,1.000)
  Men x age x time      0.998*** (0.997,0.999)
Region x Time
  South x time      0.975* (0.952,0.998)
  Central x time      1  
  North x time      0.991 (0.970,1.012)
Education x Time
  Low x time      1  
  Middle x time      1.011 (0.993,1.030)
  High x time      1.021* (1.001,1.042)
Self-perceived health x Time
  Poor x time      1  
  Good x time      1.030*** (1.013,1.048)
Marital status x Time
  With partner x time      1  
  No partner x time      1.026* (1.003,1.050)
Marital status x Region x Time a
  With partner x central x time    1  
  No partner x south x time     1.035 (0.987,1.085)
  No partner x north x time     0.952* (0.916,0.990)
Random Effect
  Intercept 1.719 (1.592,1.857) 2.873 (2.517,3.279) 2.26 (1.954,2.613)
  Time slope    0.023 (0.019,0.028) 0.021 (0.017,0.026)
  Covariance    −0.119 (−0.154,-0.083) − 0132 (−0.166,-0.099)
Intraclass correlation 0.343   0.466   0.407  
  1. * p value < 0.05, ** p value < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. a The estimates for interaction that include a reference category were not shown as it equal to the main effect of the other variable. For example, estimates for interaction between central x middle education level and central x high education level are equal to estimates for middle education level (OR:1.099, 95%CI:0.938,1.288) and high education level (OR: 1.271, 95%CI:1.067,1.513), respectively
  3. b n = number of records