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Table 3 Association Between the Total Cognitive Trajectory and Migration Status in Female Subjects

From: Association between rural-to-urban migration and the cognitive aging trajectories of older Chinese adults: results from a prospective cohort analysis

Mixed Effect β (SE)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Fixed effect
 constant 9.39 (0.12)*** 8.08 (0.16)*** 8.00 (0.20)*** 8.55 (0.23)*** 8.49 (0.25)***
 Time −0.99 (0.05)*** −0.99 (0.05)*** − 0.99 (0.05)*** −0.99 (0.05)*** − 0.99 (0.05)***
 Migrant (Ref. Non-migrants) 0.78 (0.16)*** 0.47 (0.14)*** 0.48 (0.14)*** 0.35 (0.14)** 0.32 (0.14)*
 Age65 ~ 70 (Ref. Age60~) −0.83 (0.16)*** −0.85 (0.14)*** − 0.85 (0.14)*** −0.79 (0.14)*** − 0.78 (0.14)***
 Age > 70 (Ref. Age60~) −2.68 (0.17)*** −1.72 (0.16)*** −1.66 (0.16)*** −1.65 (0.16)*** − 1.61 (0.16)***
SES
 Education level (Ref. illiterate)
  Some primary school   2.09 (0.15)*** 2.09 (0.15)*** 2.06 (0.15)*** 2.03 (0.15)***
  Finished primary school   3.88 (0.17)*** 3.88 (0.17)*** 3.73 (0.17)*** 3.69 (0.17)***
  Higher than primary school   5.17 (0.30)*** 5.14 (0.30)*** 4.92 (0.29)*** 4.88 (0.29)***
 Retired (Ref. no)   −0.09 (0.13) −0.05 (0.13) − 0.06 (0.12) −0.03 (0.12)
 Household annual income (Ref. low)
  Medium   −0.15 (0.13) −0.10 (0.14) − 0.21 (0.14) −0.21 (0.14)
  High   0.26 (0.17) 0.41 (0.19)* 0.15 (0.19) 0.14 (0.19)
Family connections
 Coupled household    0.15 (0.14) 0.16 (0.14) 0.15 (0.14)
 Living with children    −0.36 (0.13)** −0.28 (0.12)* −0.29 (0.12)*
 Caring for grandchildren    0.16 (0.12) 0.19 (0.12) 0.21 (0.12)
Social attachment
 Civic participation (Ref.no)     0.59 (0.65) 0.52 (0.65)
 Leisure activities (Ref.no)     0.87 (0.19)*** 0.83 (0.19)***
 Friendships (Ref.no)     0.25 (0.12)* 0.21 (0.12)
Depression     −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.06 (0.01)***
Health
 ADLs      −0.12 (0.05)*
 Chronic diseases (Ref. Non-disease)      −0.05 (0.13)
Health behaviours
 Smoking (Ref. Non-smoker)
  Light/moderate smokers      0.30 (0.27)
  Heavy smokers      0.44 (0.43)
 Alcohol consumption (Ref. Non-drinker)
   ≤ 1 drink per month      −0.01 (0.28)
   > 1 drink per month      −0.05 (0.21)
 Afternoon napping (Ref. Non-napper)
  Short napper      0.65 (0.22)**
  Moderate napper      0.31 (0.13)*
  Extended napper      −0.19 (0.18)
 Random effect
  ID 2.27 1.76 1.76 1.65 1.64
  Time 0.25 0.17 0.16 0.20 0.20
  AIC 32,734 32,075 32,069 31,986 31,980
  1. Abbreviations: AIC Akaike Information Criterion, SES socioeconomic status, ADL activity of daily living disability
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age group and time of follow-up; Model 2: Model 1 + socioeconomic status; Model 3: Model 2 + family connections; Model 4: Model3 + social attachment + depression; Model 5: Model 4 + health and health behaviours
  3. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001;