Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Overall Sample and According to Migration Status by Sex

From: Association between rural-to-urban migration and the cognitive aging trajectories of older Chinese adults: results from a prospective cohort analysis

Variables Total (n = 3876) Female (n = 2024) P Male (n = 1852) P
Non-migrant (n = 1546) Migrant (n = 478) Non-migrant (n = 1480) Migrant (n = 372)
Demographic
 Age, mean ± SD 67.5 ± 6.5 67.6 ± 6.6 68.2 ± 7.2 0.061 67.3 ± 6.2 67.1 ± 6.0 0.556
 Age group, n (%)     0.193    0.693
   < 65 1622 (41.8) 635 (41.1) 191 (40.0)   629 (42.5) 167 (44.9)  
  65 ~ 70 1190 (30.7) 492 (31.8) 138 (28.9)   450 (30.4) 110 (29.6)  
   > 70 1064 (27.5) 419 (27.1) 149 (31.2)   401 (27.1) 95 (25.5)  
 Education level, n (%)     0.032    0.001
  Illiterate 1694 (43.7) 986 (63.8) 270 (56.5)   376 (25.4) 62 (16.7)  
  Some primary school 860 (22.2) 280 (18.1) 100 (20.9)   362 (24.5) 118 (31.7)  
  Finished primary school 943 (24.3) 222 (14.4) 83 (17.4)   504 (34.1) 134 (36.0)  
  Higher than primary school 379 (9.8) 58 (3.8) 25 (5.2)   238 (16.1) 58 (15.6)  
 Retired, n (%) 1173 (30.3) 544 (35.2) 213 (44.6) <.001 288 (19.5) 128 (34.4) <.001
 Household annual income, n (%)     <.001    <.001
  Low 1098 (28.3) 473 (30.6) 125 (26.2)   429 (29.0) 71 (19.1)  
  Medium 2074 (53.5) 821 (53.1) 241 (50.4)   810 (54.7) 202 (54.3)  
  High 704 (18.2) 252 (16.3) 112 (23.4)   241 (16.3) 99 (26.6)  
Family connections, n (%)
 Coupled household 3026 (78.1) 1128 (73.0) 327 (68.4) 0.061 1238 (83.6) 333 (89.5) 0.006
 Living with children 1889 (48.7) 735 (47.5) 280 (58.6) <.001 659 (44.5) 215 (57.8) <.001
 Caring for grandchildren 1545 (39.9) 534 (34.5) 230 (48.1) <.001 587 (39.7) 194 (52.2) <.001
Social attachment, n (%)
 Civic participation 33 (0.9) 11 (0.7) 4 (0.8) 0.999 14 (0.9) 4 (1.1) 0.999
 Leisure activities 569 (14.7) 133 (8.6) 78 (16.3) <.001 282 (19.1) 76 (20.4) 0.598
 Friendships 1269 (32.7) 554 (35.8) 161 (33.7) 0.420 452 (30.5) 102 (27.4) 0.266
Depression, (mean ± SD, 0–30) 9.1 ± 6.5 10.3 ± 6.8 9.0 ± 6.7 <.001 8.2 ± 6.0 7.5 ± 5.7 0.039
Health
 ADLs, (mean ± SD, 0–6) 0.5 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 1.3 0.5 ± 1.1 0.035 0.4 ± 1.0 0.3 ± 0.7 0.069
 Chronic diseases 2757 (71.1) 1144 (74.0) 348 (72.8) 0.646 1018 (68.8) 247 (66.4) 0.411
Health behaviours
 Smoking, n (%)     0.115    0.477
  Non-smokers 2582 (66.6) 1457 (94.2) 438 (91.6)   553 (37.4) 134 (36.0)  
  Light/moderate smokers 601 (15.5) 64 (4.1) 30 (6.3)   411 (27.8) 96 (25.8)  
  Heavy smokers 693 (17.9) 25 (1.6) 10 (2.1)   516 (34.9) 142 (38.2)  
 Alcohol consumption, n (%)     0.954    0.183
  Non-drinker 2665 (68.8) 1349 (87.3) 418 (87.4)   713 (48.2) 185 (49.7)  
   ≤ 1 drink per month 239 (6.2) 65 (4.2) 21 (4.4)   115 (7.8) 38 (10.2)  
   > 1 drink per month 972 (25.1) 132 (8.5) 39 (8.2)   652 (44.1) 149 (40.1)  
 Afternoon napping, n (%)     0.066    0.507
  Non-napper 1878 (48.5) 876 (56.7) 240 (50.2)   602 (40.7) 160 (43.0)  
  Short napper 327 (8.4) 114 (7.4) 35 (7.3)   149 (10.1) 29 (7.8)  
  Moderate napper 1111 (28.7) 386 (25.0) 145 (30.3)   467 (31.6) 113 (30.4)  
  Extended napper 560 (14.4) 170 (11.0) 58 (12.1)   262 (17.7) 70 (18.8)  
Cognition, mean ± SD
 Total cognition (range 0–21) 9.2 ± 3.8 8.1 ± 3.8 8.8 ± 3.8 0.001 10.3 ± 3.7 10.5 ± 3.4 0.274
 Mental status (range 0–11) 6.2 ± 3.1 5.2 ± 3.0 5.8 ± 3.0 <.001 7.2 ± 2.9 7.5 ± 2.7 0.086
 Episodic memory (range 0–10) 3.0 ± 1.7 2.9 ± 1.7 3.0 ± 1.7 0.651 3.1 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 1.6 0.556
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, SES socioeconomic status, ADL activity of daily living disability