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Table 4 Behavioral Battery (psychometric tests) (measured at all 4 time points: t0: baseline; t1: 6 months; t2: 12 months & t3: 18 months)

From: Train the brain with music (TBM): brain plasticity and cognitive benefits induced by musical training in elderly people in Germany and Switzerland, a study protocol for an RCT comparing musical instrumental practice to sensitization to music

BASIC COGNITION
Processing speed & Attention Digit-symbol WAIS-IV, Wechsler, 2011 [98]
Short term memory Forward Digit Span WAIS IV, Wechsler, 2011
  Backward Digit Span WAIS IV, Wechsler, 2011
EXECUTIVE CONTROL
- Shifting Number switch Zuber et al., 2016 [99]
  Perceptual switch + Prospective Memory Zuber et al., 2016
- Inhibition GoDigit -NoGo Enge et al., 2014 [100]
  Stop-Signal Task Enge et al., 2014
FLUID INTELLIGENCE
Logical reasoning Matrices test WAIS IV, Wechsler, 2011
KNOWLEDGE
Episodic memory Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test Bean, 2011 [101]; Rey, 1964 [102]; Helmstaedter et al., 2001 [103]
MUSIC COGNITION
Musical aptitude GOLD MSI (melody, rhythm)
Harmony test (“Pietri”)
Müllensiefen, 2014 [92]
Oechslin et al., 2013 [5]
AUDITIVE COGNITION
Speech-in-noise perception International Matrix Test (Oldenburg) Kollmeier et al., 2015 [104]
PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILL
Visuo-manual aptitude Purdue Pegboard Tiffin and Asher, 1948 [105]
Scale playing on keyboard Scale analysis Jabusch et al., 2004 [106]
OTHER
WHOQOL-BREFa Well-being WHO, 2014b
Physical Activity Scale for Elderly PASE (last two weeks activities) Washburn, 1993 [107]
  1. aWorld Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (BREF for abbreviated)
  2. bhttps://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/76.pdf