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Table 2 Prescreening procedure in order to verify inclusion/exclusion criteria

From: Train the brain with music (TBM): brain plasticity and cognitive benefits induced by musical training in elderly people in Germany and Switzerland, a study protocol for an RCT comparing musical instrumental practice to sensitization to music

PRESCREENINGa Action Data collection
First contact Telephone call; decision to proceed to Pre-screening Step 1 Age – gender – musical history – general health – native language – retirement – MRI compatibility – overall availability – contact information
Demographic questionnaireb Send/receive by post In-house questionnaire, detailed information on languages; handedness; physical capability to come to the courses; health: hospitalizations (causes), locomotion, vision (correction), audition (hearing aids), height & weightc, sleep quality; cardiovascular & neurological diseases, hypertension, diabetes, arthrosis, arthritis, rheumatism, bone fractures, thyroid problems, memory problems, other health problems; consent yes/no to contact the family doctor in case of fortuitous findings; smoking habits over the lifespan; alcohol consumption over the lifespan; present medication; other drug use, remarks; sociodemographic information: age, gender, nationality, civil status, siblings, children, highest level of education (5 categories), main professional engagements, gross monthly household incomed (5 categories); MRI compatibility: claustrophobia, implants; Interest for the study: motivation
Food Frequency Questionnaire FFQe [91] Send/receive by post Detailed information on food consumption (quality and quantity) over the last 4 weeks
Music questionnaires Send/receive by post Musical history (in-house questionnaire; GEMMI lab): amount and intensity of music listening and extracurricular music training: solfege/theory, instrumental training, choir singing, intracurricular music training in school
Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (GOLD MSI): self-report inventory and test battery for individual differences in musical sophistication (ability to engage with music) [92]
Godin-Shephard leisure-time physical activity questionnaire [93] Send/receive by post Adapted to cover different parts of life (2–25 y.o., last 5 years and last year)
In-house questionnaire on stressful life events Send/receive by post Self-report inventory on stressful events that may influence cognitive functioning, covering 6 time periods (12–25 y.o., 25–55 y.o, 55–64 y.o.; last 10 years, 5 years and year; GEMMI lab)
Geriatric Depression Scalef [94] Send/receive by post Short version. Check for clinical depression
First laboratory visit
- Basic clinical finger snap audition test
- Psychometric tests
i. Right-handedness
ii. COGTELh [95]
Verify /complete questionnaires of Step 1
Pass 3 psychometric tests
Check for major hearing impairmentg
Pass the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (revised) to check for right handedness [96]; Measure gross overall cognitive level and check for potential (mild) cognitive decline (COGTEL)
  1. a Outliers (based on cut-off scores and or other exclusion criteria) for the tests of Pre-screening Step 1 & 2 are excluded from the study
  2. b All questionnaires are written in French and German; their translation was thoroughly verified by two bilingual researchers
  3. c Allows to compute the Body Mass Index (BMI), obese people are excluded (BMI > 30), as obesity impacts on brain (shrinkage) [133]
  4. d Adapted to Switzerland, France and Germany
  5. e Swiss Food Frequency Questionnaire, a semi-quantitative questionnaire existing in French and German, on 80 food items divided in 12 food groups
  6. f Geriatric Depression Scale short version
  7. g Refined information on hearing will be acquired during the Behavioral Battery, see Table 4 International Matrix Test
  8. h The COGTEL is a test of global cognition applied by telephone or face-to-face (we applied face-to-face). This hybrid cognitive test, developed for older adults by the team of Prof. Matthias Kliegel, provides a global measure of cognition, based on several memory and executive function subtests