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Table 1 Demographic and health related characteristics of participants and results of the univariate analysis (N = 775)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of dysphagia among nursing home residents in eastern China: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Classification Total (n = 775) With dysphagia (n = 241) Without dysphagia (n = 534) T/χ2-Value p-Value
Age (year) (Mean ± SD) 81.3 ± 9.3 82.0 ± 9.5 81.0 ± 9.2 −1.410 0.159
60 ~ 69 years 93 (12.0%) 30 (12.4%) 63 (11.8%) 1.920 0.383
70 ~ 79 years 192 (24.8%) 52 (21.6%) 140 (26.2%)   
≥80 years 490 (63.2%) 159 (66.0%) 331 (62.0%)   
Sex Male 305 (39.4%) 101 (41.9%) 204 (38.2%) 0.956 0.328
Female 470 (60.6%) 140 (58.1%) 330 (61.8%)   
Marital status Unmarried 528 (68.1%) 148 (61.4%) 380 (71.2%) 7.270** 0.007
Married 247 (31.9%) 93 (38.6%) 154 (28.8%)   
Education Illiterate 206 (26.6%) 63 (36.1%) 143 (26.8%) 4.654 0.199
Primary school 158 (20.4%) 42 (17.4%) 116 (21.7%)   
High school 286 (36.9%) 88 (36.5%) 198 (37.1%)   
College and above 125 (16.1%) 48 (19.9%) 77 (14.4%)   
Texture of diet General diet 524 (67.6%) 74 (30.7%) 450 (84.3%) 332.421** <0.001
Soft diet 82 (10.6%) 19 (7.9%) 63 (11.8%)   
Semi-liquid diet 28 (3.6%) 21 (8.7%) 7 (1.3%)   
Liquid diet 49 (6.3%) 38 (15.8%) 11 (2.1%)   
Tube feeding 92 (11.9%) 89 (36.9%) 3 (0.6%)   
BMI (Mean ± SD) 22.0 ± 3.9 21.2 ± 4.0 22.4 ± 3.8 4.006** <0.001
Underweight (BMI<18.5) 147 (19.0%) 66 (27.4%) 81 (15.2%) 18.689** <0.001
Normal (18.5 ≤ BMI<24) 389 (50.2%) 115 (47.7%) 274 (51.3%)   
Overweight(24 ≤ BMI<28) 188 (24.3%) 44 (18.3%) 144 (27.0%)   
Obesity (BMI ≥ 28) 51 (6.6%) 16 (6.6%) 35 (6.6%)   
Dental condition Normal teeth 136 (17.5%) 34 (14.1%) 102 (19.1%) 16.382** <0.001
Artificial teeth 138 (17.8%) 27 (11.2%) 111 (20.8%)   
Dental caries 501 (64.6%) 180 (74.7%) 321 (60.1%)   
Aspiration history (Occurred during the past month) No 687 (88.6%) 169 (70.1%) 518 (97.0%) 119.194** <0.001
Yes 88 (11.4%) 72 (29.9%) 16 (3.0%)   
Pneumonia history (Occurred during the past year) No 715 (92.3%) 195 (80.9%) 520 (97.4%) 63.030** <0.001
Yes 60 (7.7%) 46 (19.1%) 14 (2.6%)   
Hospitalization history (Occurred during the past year) No 577 (74.5%) 156 (64.7%) 421 (78.8%) 17.378** <0.001
Yes 198 (25.5%) 85 (35.3%) 113 (21.2%)   
Types of oral medication (Mean ± SD) 2.5 ± 2.1 3.2 ± 2.3 2.2 ± 1.9 −5.756** <0.001
≤2 446 (57.5%) 107 (44.4%) 339 (63.5%) 24.757** <0.001
≥3 329 (42.5%) 134 (55.6%) 195 (36.5%)   
Dementia No 634 (81.8%) 183 (75.9%) 451 (84.5%) 8.105** 0.004
Yes 141 (18.2%) 58 (24.1%) 83 (15.5%)   
Parkinson disease No 728 (93.9%) 215 (89.2%) 513 (96.1%) 13.701** <0.001
Yes 47 (6.1%) 26 (10.8%) 21 (3.9%)   
Stroke history No 462 (59.6%) 99 (41.1%) 363 (68.0%) 49.904** <0.001
Yes 313 (40.4%) 142 (58.9%) 171 (32.0%)   
TBI history No 763 (98.5%) 236 (97.9%) 527 (98.7%) 0.636 0.530b
Yes 12 (1.5%) 5 (2.1%) 7 (1.3%)   
Cancer No 752 (97.0%) 228 (94.6%) 527 (98.1%) 7.151** 0.007
Yes 23 (3.0%) 13 (5.4%) 10 (1.9%)   
Diabetes No 577 (74.5%) 177 (73.4%) 400 (74.9%) 0.187 0.666
Yes 198 (25.5%) 64 (26.6%) 134 (25.1%)   
Hypertension No 391 (50.5%) 118 (49.0%) 273 (51.1%) 0.310 0.578
Yes 384 (49.5%) 123 (51.0%) 261 (48.9%)   
Hyperlipidemia No 709 (91.5%) 228 (94.6%) 481 (90.1%) 4.376* 0.036
Yes 66 (8.5%) 13 (5.4%) 53 (9.9%)   
Heart failure No 731 (94.3%) 226 (93.8%) 505 (94.6%) 0.195 0.659
Yes 44 (5.7%) 15 (6.2%) 29 (5.4%)   
Heart attack history No 725 (93.5%) 218 (90.5%) 507 (94.9%) 5.540* 0.019
Yes 50 (6.5%) 23 (9.5%) 27 (5.1%)   
COPD No 760 (98.1%) 236 (97.9%) 524 (98.1%) 0.036 1.000b
Yes 15 (1.9%) 5 (2.1%) 10 (1.9%)   
Digestive diseases No 734 (94.7%) 224 (92.9%) 510 (95.5%) 2.171 0.141
Yes 41 (5.3%) 17 (7.1%) 24 (4.5%)   
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, TBI Traumatic Brain Injury, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases
  2. a Some residents have no drugs, so the total number is less than 775
  3. b Use adjusted Chi-square analysis
  4. * p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01