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Table 2 Multivariable logistic regression of factors associated with depressive symptoms

From: Dose–response relationship between intergenerational contact frequency and depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese parents: a cross-sectional study

Independent Variable Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
P Adjusted OR a
(95% CI)
P
Gender (Male as reference)
 Female 1.99 (1.78–2.21) < 0.001 1.69 (1.49–1.92) < 0.001
Marriage Status (Living with spouse present as reference)
 Married but not living with spouse temporarily 1.49 (1.11–2.00) 0.008 1.36 (1.00–1.85) 0.054
 Divorced / Widowed / Never married / Cohabitated 1.69 (1.51–1.89) < 0.001 1.29 (1.13–1.47) < 0.001
Residence (Main city zone as reference)
 Town area 1.37 (1.08–1.73) 0.010 1.20 (0.93–1.54) 0.155
 Township 1.61 (1.19–2.17) 0.002 1.35 (0.98–1.86) 0.066
 Village 2.16 (1.84–2.55) < 0.001 1.78 (1.47–2.14) < 0.001
Education level (Illiterate as reference)
 Elementary school or below 0.68 (0.60–0.76) < 0.001 0.88 (0.76–1.01) 0.060
 Middle school 0.40 (0.34–0.48) < 0.001 0.64 (0.52–0.78) < 0.001
 High school or Vocational school 0.27 (0.24–0.35) < 0.001 0.46 (0.35–0.63) < 0.001
 Bachelor’s degree / Associate degree or greater 0.24 (0.15–0.38) < 0.001 0.48 (0.29–0.80) 0.005
Number of chronic diseases suffered (None as reference)
 One 1.51 (1.27–1.80) < 0.001 1.44 (1.20–1.73) < 0.001
 Two 1.76 (1.47–2.10) < 0.001 1.74 (1.44–2.09) < 0.001
 Three or more 3.25 (2.76–3.84) < 0.001 3.34 (2.81–3.96) < 0.001
Number of children (One as reference)
 Two or more 1.41 (1.15–1.71) 0.001 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 0.702
Frequency of meeting with children (Over once a week as reference)
 1–2 times a month 1.31 (1.14–1.51) < 0.001 1.20 (1.04–1.40) 0.016
 1–2 times every 6 months 1.71 (1.48–1.98) < 0.001 1.49 (1.28–1.74) < 0.001
 Once a year or less 1.95 (1.63–2.33) < 0.001 1.68 (1.39–2.03) < 0.001
Frequency of connecting with children (At least twice a week as reference)
 Once a week 1.51 (1.32–1.72) < 0.001 1.28 (1.07–1.52) 0.006
 1–2 times a month 1.61 (1.36–1.89) < 0.001 1.32 (1.11–1.58) 0.002
 Once every 3 months or less 1.65 (1.40–1.93) < 0.001 1.34 (1.17–1.55) < 0.001
  1. a adjusted for gender, marriage status, residence, education level, number of chronic diseases suffered, number of children, frequency of meeting with children, frequency of connecting with children.
  2. OR odds ratio and CI confidence intervals