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Table 1 Participant characteristics by CES-D-10 scores and depressive symptoms

From: Dose–response relationship between intergenerational contact frequency and depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese parents: a cross-sectional study

Variables N (%) CES-D-10 scores
(Mean ± SD)
F Depressive symptoms
(N / prevalence %)
χ2
Gender    209.159***   157.471***
 Male 3216 (55.53) 7.72 ± 6.14   977 (30.38)  
 Female 2575 (44.47) 10.23 ± 7.05   1196 (46.45)  
Age (years old)    1.138   2.646
 60–69 3504 (60.51) 8.74 ± 6.70   1318 (37.61)  
 70–79 1791 (30.93) 9.03 ± 6.70   685 (38.25)  
  ≥ 80 496 (8.57) 8.73 ± 6.48   170 (34.27)  
Marriage status    64.053***   83.448***
 Living with spouse present 3788 (65.41) 8.12 ± 6.36   1262 (33.32)  
 Married but not living with spouse temporarily 190 (3.28) 9.42 ± 6.48   81 (42.63)  
 Divorced / Widowed / Never married 1813 (31.31) 10.25 ± 7.11   830 (48.78)  
Residence    52.735***   102.656***
 Main city zone 916 (15.82) 6.62 ± 5.82   226 (24.67)  
 Town area 540 (9.32) 7.80 ± 6.38   167 (30.93)  
 Township 255 (4.40) 8.42 ± 6.28   88 (34.51)  
 Village 4080 (70.45) 9.49 ± 6.80   1692 (41.47)  
Education level    75.525***   190.701***
 Illiterate 1705 (29.44) 10.57 ± 7.18   812 (47.62)  
 Elementary school or below 2706 (46.73) 8.91 ± 6.56   1030 (38.06)  
 Middle school 851 (14.70) 6.92 ± 5.75   229 (26.91)  
 High school or Vocational school 410 (7.08) 6.02 ± 5.44   81 (19.76)  
 Bachelor’s degree / Associate degree or greater 119 (2.05) 5.53 ± 4.65   21 (17.65)  
Household per capita consumptions expenditure last yeara    0.936   3.474
  ≤ 2000 RMB / 286.69 US$ / 255.90 € 3302 (57.02) 8.87 ± 6.71   1233 (37.34)  
  ~ 5000 RMB / 716.72 US$ / 639.75 € 1233 (21.29) 9.00 ± 6.47   487 (39.50)  
  ~ 10,000 RMB / 1433.44 US$ / 1279.51 € 630 (10.88) 8.57 ± 6.98   223 (35.40)  
  > 10,000 RMB / 1433.44 US$ / 1279.51 € 626 (10.81) 8.58 ± 6.62   230 (36.74)  
Number of chronic diseases sufferedb    135.991***   246.78***
 None 1103 (19.05) 6.57 ± 5.52   264 (23.93)  
 One 1452 (25.07) 7.83 ± 6.22   468 (32.23)  
 Two 1309 (22.60) 8.52 ± 6.37   466 (35.60)  
 Three or more 1927 (33.28) 11.09 ± 7.15   975 (50.60)  
Number of children    25.595***   11.394**
 One 498 (8.60) 7.39 ± 6.20   152 (30.52)  
 Two or more 5293 (91.40) 8.97 ± 6.71   2021 (38.18)  
Frequency of meeting with children    35.732***   79.056***
 At least once a week 1725 (29.79) 7.70 ± 6.37   524 (30.38)  
 1–2 times a month 1793 (30.96) 8.66 ± 6.44   653 (36.42)  
 1–2 times every 6 months 1533 (26.47) 9.64 ± 6.82   656 (42.79)  
 Once a year or less 740 (12.78) 10.22 ± 7.17   340 (45.95)  
Frequency of connecting with children    28.873***   60.018***
 At least twice a week 1985 (34.28) 7.80 ± 6.32   611 (30.78)  
 Once a week 1948 (33.64) 8.99 ± 6.61   782 (40.14)  
 1–2 times a month 900 (15.54) 9.85 ± 7.01   375 (41.67)  
 Once every 3 months or less 958 (16.54) 9.70 ± 6.93   405 (42.28)  
Total 5791 (100.00) 8.83 ± 6.68   2173 (37.52)  
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001
  2. a The exchange rates of RMB against US dollar and euro were the rates on January 1, 2020. The absolute poverty line of Chinese population in 2019 was 2300 RMB annual per capita disposable income
  3. bA total of 14 types of chronic diseases were asked: 1. Hypertension; 2. Dyslipidemia (elevation of low density lipoprotein, triglycerides (TGs), and total cholesterol, or a low high density lipoprotein level); 3. Diabetes or high blood sugar; 4. Cancer or malignant tumor (excluding minor skin cancers); 5. Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema (excluding tumors, or cancer); 6. Liver disease (except fatty liver, tumors, and cancer); 7. Heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems; 8. Stroke; 9. Kidney disease (except for tumor or cancer); 10. Stomach or other digestive disease (except for tumor or cancer); 11. Emotional, nervous, or psychiatric problems; 12. Memory-related disease; 13. Arthritis or rheumatism; 14. Asthma