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Table 3 Demographic data and ICHOM Standard Set Older Person outcome measures by sex, age, and cognitive performance status

From: First insights on value-based healthcare of elders using ICHOM older person standard set reporting

Data values show mean ± standard deviation or number (percent) Sex Age (years) MoCAadj
Female Male p < 75 ≥75 p ≥26 < 26 p
Demographics and health-related factors
 Number 177 122   184 115   145 154  
 Age (years) 73.3 ± 6.3 73.3 ± 7.0 0.957 68.9 ± 2.7 80.3 ± 4.6 < 0.001 71.3 ± 5.5 75.1 ± 7.0 < 0.001
 Male 0 (0) 122 (100) < 0.001 75 (40.8) 47 (40.9) 0.985 57 (39.3) 65 (42.2) 0.61
 Education (years) 6.9 ± 4.4 8.8 ± 4.8 0.001 8.3 ± 4.3 6.5 ± 5.0 0.001 9.3 ± 4.0 6.0 ± 4.7 < 0.001
 Smoke tobacco 6 (3.4) 38 (31.2) < 0.001 29 (15.8) 15 (13.0) 0.519 21 (14.5) 23 (14.9) 0.912
 Drink alcohol 7 (4.0) 30 (24.6) < 0.001 25 (13.6) 12 (10.4) 0.421 24 (16.6) 13 (8.4) 0.033
 Exercise (≥30 min, ≥3 times/week) 31 (17.5) 20 (16.4) 0.8 37 (20.1) 14 (12.2) 0.076 24 (16.6) 27 (17.5) 0.822
 Montreal Cognitive Assessment (adjusted)a 23.8 ± 5.5 23.7 ± 5.6 0.778 25.2 ± 4.6 21.5 ± 6.2 < 0.001 28.2 ± 1.6 19.5 ± 4.6 < 0.001
 Montreal Cognitive Assessment (adjusted)a < 26 89 (50.3) 65 (53.3) 0.61 75 (40.8) 79 (68.7) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 154 (100.0) < 0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.1 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 1.0 0.722 1.2 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 1.1 0.517 1.1 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 1.1 0.237
 Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 48 (27.1) 42 (34.4) 0.176 60 (32.6) 30 (26.1) 0.232 42 (29.0) 48 (31.2) 0.678
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 3.7 25.8 ± 3.5 0.039 25.8 ± 3.4 24.4 ± 3.9 0.002 25.3 ± 3.3 25.2 ± 3.9 0.930
ICHOM Standard Set Older Person Tier 1
 Clinical frailty scale 2.6 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 1.0 0.838 2.5 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 1.0 < 0.001 2.5 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 Frail 22 (12.4) 13 (10.7) 0.639 13 (7.1) 22 (19.1) 0.002 5 (3.5) 30 (19.5) < 0.001
 Preferred place of death chosen 30 (17.0) 13 (10.7) 0.128 29 (15.8) 14 (12.2) 0.390 19 (13.1) 24 (15.6) 0.541
 Do Not Resuscitate signed 15 (8.5) 6 (4.9) 0.237 17 (9.2) 4 (3.5) 0.058 15 (10.3) 6 (3.9) 0.029
ICHOM Standard Set Older Person Tier 2
 Number of drugs 3.4 ± 2.6 3.8 ± 2.7 0.207 3.2 ± 2.6 4.2 ± 2.7 0.001 3.5 ± 2.7 3.7 ± 2.7 0.436
 Polypharmacy (≥5 concurrent drugs) 53 (29.9) 42 (34.4) 0.413 49 (26.6) 46 (40.0) 0.016 43 (29.7) 52 (33.8) 0.445
 Number of adverse drug events 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.1 0.839 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.0 0.289 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.0 0.181
 Episodes of discomfort after medications 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.1 0.599 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.0 0.103 0.0 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.0 0.103
 Fell 34 (19.2) 17 (13.9) 0.233 27 (14.7) 24 (20.9) 0.166 24 (16.6) 27 (17.5) 0.822
 Number of falls 0.3 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.5 0.131 0.2 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.5 0.672 0.2 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.6 0.877
 Hospital admissions 0.1 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.6 < 0.001 0.2 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.4 0.871 0.2 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.5 0.657
 Length of hospital stay (days) 0.5 ± 2.6 2.0 ± 4.8 0.003 1.0 ± 3.5 1.3 ± 4.1 0.486 0.9 ± 2.7 1.3 ± 4.5 0.286
 Able to cope with own health 162 (91.5) 114 (93.4) 0.541 172 (93.5) 104 (90.4) 0.337 138 (95.2) 138 (89.6) 0.071
 Participate in care decision-making 163 (92.1) 113 (92.6) 0.865 168 (91.3) 108 (93.9) 0.410 135 (93.1) 141 (91.6) 0.616
 Treated with dignity and respect 170 (96.1) 119 (97.5) 0.48 178 (96.7) 111 (96.5) 0.919 142 (97.9) 147 (95.5) 0.234
 Received coordinated care 163 (92.1) 107 (87.7) 0.208 159 (86.4) 111 (96.5) 0.004 132 (91.0) 138 (89.6) 0.678
 Discharged to place of choice 176 (99.4) 120 (98.4) 0.36 183 (99.5) 113 (98.3) 0.313 144 (99.3) 152 (98.7) 0.597
 Overall participation in decision-making 4.7 ± 0.8 4.7 ± 0.7 0.863 4.7 ± 0.8 4.8 ± 0.7 0.353 4.8 ± 0.6 4.6 ± 0.8 0.175
 High participation (≥5 components) 150 (84.8) 94 (77.1) 0.091 147 (79.9) 97 (84.4) 0.333 122 (84.1) 122 (79.2) 0.273
ICHOM Standard Set Older Person Tier 3
 UCLA Loneliness Scale 30.7 ± 10.2 31.3 ± 9.8 0.611 30.4 ± 9.4 31.8 ± 11.0 0.232 28.4 ± 8.3 33.4 ± 11.0 < 0.001
 Loneliness 46 (26.0) 34 (27.9) 0.718 46 (25.0) 34 (29.6) 0.386 22 (15.2) 58 (37.7) < 0.001
 Activities of daily living 7.5 ± 1.3 7.2 ± 1.5 0.08 7.6 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.7 0.002 7.8 ± 0.8 7.1 ± 1.8 < 0.001
 Any limitation of activities of daily living 29 (16.4) 38 (31.2) 0.003 29 (15.8) 38 (33.0) < 0.001 19 (13.1) 48 (31.2) < 0.001
 Walking speed (m/s) 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.514 0.9 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3 < 0.001 1.0 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 < 0.001
 Slowness (6-m walk < 0.8 m/s) 68 (38.4) 47 (38.5) 0.985 54 (29.4) 61 (53.0) < 0.001 32 (22.1) 83 (53.9) < 0.001
 Moderate pain 21 (11.9) 10 (8.2) 0.307 15 (8.2) 16 (13.9) 0.112 16 (11.0) 15 (9.7) 0.714
 Depression 25 (14.1) 14 (11.5) 0.504 19 (10.3) 20 (17.4) 0.078 16 (11.0) 23 (14.9) 0.317
 Value-based health score 7.3 ± 1.9 7.1 ± 1.8 0.312 7.6 ± 1.6 6.7 ± 2.1 < 0.001 7.8 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 2.0 < 0.001
 High value-based health 60 (33.9) 29 (23.8) 0.06 63 (34.2) 26 (22.6) 0.032 57 (39.3) 32 (20.8) 0.001
  1. aOne point added for education years ≤12
  2. ICHOM International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement, UCLA University of California, Los Angeles