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Table 4 Odds ratios (95% CI) for physical frailty transitions and loneliness

From: Loneliness as a risk factor for frailty transition among older Chinese people

  3 -year period (2008–2011) 6-year period (2008–2014)
Remaining robust and prefrail Worsening Improvement Remaining frail Remaining robust and prefrail Worsening Improvement Remaining frail
Total
 never Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 seldom 0.99 1.05 1.03 1.15 0.98 1.02 0.99 2.47**
(0.87–1.13) (0.90–1.21) (0.86–1.23) (0.76–1.73) (0.83–1.15) (0.85–1.22) (0.77–1.26) (1.25–4.85)
 often 0.78** 1.19* 1.14 1.00 0.84 1.34** 0.85 1.88
(0.68–0.91) (1.01–1.41) (0.94–1.39) (0.67–1.51) (0.70–1.01) (1.08–1.66) (0.65–1.12) (0.93–3.79)
Female
 never Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 seldom 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.17 1.01 1.12 0.77 1.77
(0.83–1.21) (0.82–1.25) (0.79–1.32) (0.73–1.87) (0.80–1.28) (0.86–1.46) (0.55–1.08) (0.83–3.77)
 often 0.85 1.04 1.07 0.96 0.94 1.20 0.78 1.40
(0.69–1.05) (0.82–1.32) (0.82–1.40) (0.60–1.53) (0.73–1.21) (0.89–1.60) (0.55–1.10) (0.65–3.02)
Male
 never Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 seldom 0.99 1.08 1.03 1.35 0.96 0.92 1.28 12.68*
(0.83–1.18) (0.88–1.33) (0.80–1.34) (0.55–3.32) (0.77–1.20) (0.71–1.18) (0.90–1.82) (1.66–96.71)
 often 0.73** 1.37* 1.25 1.37 0.75* 1.54** 0.94 8.89
(0.59–0.89) (1.07–1.75) (0.93–1.68) (0.58–3.24) (0.57–0.99) (1.13–2.11) (0.61–1.44) (0.75–105.30)
  1. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05;
  2. Sample size: 2008–2011 waves: total participants: 5689; for female participants:2866; for male participants:2823;
  3. 2011–2014 waves: total participants: 3529; for female participants:1776; for male participants:1753
  4. Notes: Model had been adjusted for age, components number in the frail scale at baseline, residence, education year, living arrangement, relative economic status, smoking and drinking alcohol at baseline. In total participants, adjustment for gender was also performed
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