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Table 2 Characteristic of the participants at baseline in two survey periods

From: Loneliness as a risk factor for frailty transition among older Chinese people

  3-year period (2008–2011) 6-year period(2008–2014)
  (N = 8425) (N = 5245)
Age, mean (SD) 82.6 (11.0) 79.1 (10.1)
Gender:female,n(%) 4607 (54.7) 2800 (53.4)
Education year, mean (SD) 2.4 (3.6) 2.6 (3.6)
Residenc:Rural, n(%) 5207 (61.8) 3319 (63.3)
Living arrangement: independently, n(%) 1368 (16.2) 843 (16.1)
Relative economic status, n(%)
 rich 1467 (17.4) 873 (16.7)
 so so 5778 (68.7) 3622 (69.2)
 poor 1162 (13.8) 740 (14.1)
Current somker, n(%) 1710 (20.3) 1178 (22.5)
Current drinker, n(%) 1670 (19.8) 1114 (21.2)
Loneliness, n(%)
 never 3262 (41.9) 2208 (43.8)
 seldom 2330 (29.9) 1532 (30.4)
 often 2195 (28.2) 1301 (25.8)
No. of components of frail scale at baseline, mean (SD) 1.20 (1.2) 0.98 (1.1)
Frailty index score at baseline, mean (SD) 0.13 (0.1) 0.11 (0.1)
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