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Table 7 Association of household income with home help service utilization and expenditures

From: Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation and home help service utilization among long-term home care service users

  First part: Home help service utilization (n = 3770) Second part: Home help service expenditures (n = 1163)
OR 95% CI P value RR 95% CI P value
Household income
 Middle/high income 1.000     1.000    
 Low income 1.432 1.232 1.664 < 0.001 0.888 0.799 0.986 0.026
Age (years)
 62–71 1.000     1.000    
 72–81 1.214 0.933 1.581 0.149 1.005 0.838 1.205 0.960
  ≥ 82 1.080 0.829 1.407 0.567 1.229 1.025 1.475 0.026
Sex
 Male 1.000     1.000    
 Female 1.112 0.946 1.308 0.199 1.166 1.042 1.306 0.008
Dwelling
 Detached house 1.000     1.000    
 Multiple-unit housing 1.443 1.220 1.706 < 0.001 1.238 1.107 1.384 < 0.001
Care needs level
 Care needs level 1 1.000     1.000    
 Care needs level 2 0.930 0.758 1.140 0.483 1.232 1.070 1.419 0.004
 Care needs level 3 0.930 0.724 1.194 0.570 2.075 1.743 2.469 < 0.001
 Care needs level 4 1.260 0.941 1.688 0.121 2.615 2.132 3.209 < 0.001
 Care needs level 5 1.404 0.964 2.044 0.077 3.218 2.504 4.136 < 0.001
Physical function
 Independent (Independent and Level J) 1.000     1.000    
 Mild (Level A) 0.589 0.460 0.753 < 0.001 1.427 1.216 1.676 < 0.001
 Moderate (Level B) 0.690 0.511 0.931 0.015 1.484 1.215 1.812 < 0.001
 Severe (Level C) 0.756 0.508 1.126 0.169 1.666 1.284 2.163 < 0.001
Cognitive function
 Independent (Independent and Rank I) 1.000     1.000    
 Mild (Rank II) 0.857 0.717 1.024 0.089 1.166 1.032 1.316 0.013
 Moderate (Rank III) 0.696 0.564 0.859 0.001 1.223 1.057 1.415 0.007
 Severe (Rank IV and Rank M) 0.615 0.467 0.810 0.001 1.083 0.896 1.309 0.409
Chronic diseases
Cerebrovascular disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 0.949 0.818 1.102 0.494 0.955 0.862 1.058 0.375
Joint disorders
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 1.170 1.005 1.362 0.043 0.919 0.828 1.020 0.113
Heart disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 1.024 0.877 1.195 0.763 0.973 0.876 1.081 0.609
Parkinson’s disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 1.204 0.905 1.603 0.203 1.127 0.929 1.366 0.225
Long-term care service use
Home-based rehabilitation services
  Non-use 1.000     1.000    
  Use 0.873 0.718 1.061 0.171 0.764 0.667 0.876 < 0.001
Home-visit nursing
  Non-use 1.000     1.000    
  Use 1.943 1.541 2.450 < 0.001 0.809 0.700 0.934 0.004
Type of home help servicea
 Single      1.000    
 Multiple      1.621 1.306 2.012 < 0.001
Medical expenditures
 Lower group 1.000     1.000    
 Middle group 1.014 0.848 1.212 0.877 1.066 0.941 1.208 0.315
 Higher group 1.206 1.004 1.448 0.045 1.274 1.124 1.444 < 0.001
C statistic 0.632 (0.613–0.651)     
  1. First part: multivariate logistic regression analysis; Second part: generalized linear model for gamma-distributed data with a log-link function
  2. a Home help services comprise physical care, daily living support, and support for getting on and off transit vehicles; subjects who were provided only one of these services were categorized as using “single-type” services, and subjects who were provided two or more of these services were categorized as using “multiple-type” services
  3. OR Odds ratio; RR Risk ratio; 95% CI 95% Confidence interval