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Table 6 Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation service utilization and expenditures

From: Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation and home help service utilization among long-term home care service users

  First part: Home-based rehabilitation service utilization (n = 3770) Second part: Home-based rehabilitation service expenditures (n = 681)
OR 95% CI P value RR 95% CI P value
Household income
 Middle/high income 1.000     1.000    
 Low income 0.813 0.670 0.987 0.036 0.910 0.829 0.999 0.047
Age (years)
 62–71 1.000     1.000    
 72–81 0.454 0.346 0.596 < 0.001 0.965 0.855 1.088 0.557
  ≥ 82 0.328 0.249 0.433 < 0.001 1.032 0.910 1.170 0.662
Sex
 Male 1.000     1.000    
 Female 0.689 0.571 0.832 < 0.001 1.073 0.982 1.171 0.118
Dwelling
 Detached house 1.000     1.000    
 Multiple-unit housing 0.632 0.500 0.800 < 0.001 0.948 0.846 1.063 0.362
Care needs level
 Care needs level 1 1.000     1.000    
 Care needs level 2 1.009 0.789 1.292 0.941 1.198 1.065 1.343 0.002
 Care needs level 3 1.058 0.783 1.429 0.716 1.537 1.337 1.766 < 0.001
 Care needs level 4 0.775 0.533 1.125 0.180 1.385 1.165 1.651 < 0.001
 Care needs level 5 1.124 0.700 1.804 0.628 1.416 1.132 1.772 0.002
Physical function
 Independent (Independent and Level J) 1.000     1.000    
 Mild (Level A) 1.360 0.974 1.897 0.071 1.208 1.030 1.415 0.020
 Moderate (Level B) 1.619 1.096 2.391 0.016 1.188 0.988 1.429 0.067
 Severe (Level C) 1.982 1.182 3.321 0.009 1.245 0.970 1.598 0.086
Cognitive function
 Independent (Independent and Rank I) 1.000     1.000    
 Mild (Rank II) 0.557 0.448 0.692 < 0.001 1.084 0.977 1.202 0.128
 Moderate (Rank III) 0.476 0.366 0.618 < 0.001 1.100 0.970 1.247 0.137
 Severe (Rank IV and Rank M) 0.383 0.264 0.554 < 0.001 0.850 0.711 1.016 0.075
Chronic diseases
Cerebrovascular disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 1.707 1.427 2.042 < 0.001 1.101 1.011 1.199 0.027
Joint disorders
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 1.643 1.358 1.988 < 0.001 0.923 0.842 1.011 0.086
Heart disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 0.955 0.788 1.156 0.633 0.970 0.886 1.063 0.515
Parkinson’s disease
  Absent 1.000     1.000    
  Present 2.243 1.641 3.064 < 0.001 0.938 0.815 1.079 0.372
Long-term care service use
Home help services
  Non-use 1.000     1.000    
  Use 0.877 0.721 1.067 0.189 0.922 0.838 1.014 0.095
Home-visit nursing
  Non-use 1.000     1.000    
  Use 1.994 1.518 2.621 < 0.001 0.946 0.824 1.085 0.427
Type of home-based rehabilitation services
 Home visit rehabilitation from medical facilities or nursing homes      1.000    
 Home visit rehabilitation from visiting nurse agencies      0.939 0.799 1.104 0.446
 Day care services      2.524 2.172 2.934 < 0.001
Medical expenditures
 Lower group 1.000     1.000    
 Middle group 0.782 0.632 0.968 0.024 0.970 0.877 1.072 0.548
 Higher group 0.590 0.470 0.741 < 0.001 0.922 0.825 1.031 0.154
C statistic 0.714 (0.693–0.735)     
  1. First part: multivariate logistic regression analysis; Second part: generalized linear model for gamma-distributed data with a log-link function
  2. OR Odds ratio; RR Risk ratio; 95% CI 95% Confidence interval