Skip to main content

Table 5 Association of socio-demographic characteristics with the utilization of home help services (n = 3770)

From: Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation and home help service utilization among long-term home care service users

  Home help services  
Non-use Use   Expendituresb, c  
n (%) n (%) P valuea Mean ± SD Median (IQR) P valued,e
Total 2607 (69.2) 1163 (30.8)   1113.9 ± 1145.6 623 (269–1605)  
Household income
 Middle/high income 1697 (72.2) 654 (27.8) < 0.001 1134.8 ± 1130.6 668 (281–1669) 0.163
 Low income 910 (64.1) 509 (35.9)   1087.1 ± 1165.1 583 (253–1559)  
Age (years)
 62–71 285 (72.2) 110 (27.8) 0.173 885.3 ± 989.8 544 (227–1200) < 0.001
 72–81 890 (67.5) 428 (32.5)   956.5 ± 1038.4 527 (245–1292)  
  ≥ 82 1432 (69.6) 625 (30.4)   1261.9 ± 1219.3 753 (308–2011)  
Sex
 Male 949 (71.7) 374 (28.3) 0.012 1024.8 ± 1117.7 547 (233–1459) 0.011
 Female 1658 (67.8) 789 (32.2)   1156.1 ± 1156.9 663 (295–1703)  
Dwelling
 Detached house 2096 (71.0) 856 (29.0) < 0.001 1076.9 ± 1122.9 593 (265–1500) 0.144
 Multiple-unit housing 511 (62.5) 307 (37.5)   1217.2 ± 1202.3 704 (294–1870)  
Care needs level
 Care needs level 1 647 (68.5) 297 (31.5) < 0.001 504.1 ± 453.4 359 (205–612) < 0.001
 Care needs level 2 800 (72.2) 308 (27.8)   670.0 ± 605.2 477 (212–931)  
 Care needs level 3 522 (73.3) 190 (26.7)   1230.3 ± 1039.7 912 (336–2002)  
 Care needs level 4 358 (65.3) 190 (34.7)   1732.7 ± 1383.7 1396 (462–3100)  
 Care needs level 5 280 (61.1) 178 (38.9)   2114.8 ± 1427.6 1678 (856–3509)  
Physical function
 Independent (Independent and Level J) 236 (61.8) 146 (38.2) < 0.001 439.4 ± 403.6 302 (155–566) < 0.001
 Mild (Level A) 1418 (73.7) 507 (26.3)   823.2 ± 840.2 482 (235–1105)  
 Moderate (Level B) 680 (67.2) 332 (32.8)   1388.8 ± 1289.4 855 (340–2199)  
 Severe (Level C) 273 (60.5) 178 (39.5)   1982.6 ± 1355.5 1637 (857–3124)  
Cognitive function
 Independent (Independent and Rank I) 961 (67.0) 474 (33.0) 0.071 749.4 ± 832.0 459 (226–936) < 0.001
 Mild (Rank II) 760 (69.2) 338 (30.8)   1098.8 ± 1093.2 681 (293–1654)  
 Moderate (Rank III) 587 (72.1) 227 (27.9)   1552.7 ± 1327.1 1168 (410–2372)  
 Severe (Rank IV and Rank M) 299 (70.7) 124 (29.3)   1745.5 ± 1398.4 1419 (510–2990)  
Chronic diseases
Dementia
  Present 780 (73.3) 284 (26.7) 0.001 1400.0 ± 1288.3 877 (336–2171) < 0.001
  Absent 1827 (67.5) 879 (32.5)   1021.5 ± 1080.2 584 (256–2990)  
Cerebrovascular disease
  Present 1075 (70.3) 454 (29.7) 0.204 1111.7 ± 1152.3 614 (273–1592) 0.999
  Absent 1532 (68.4) 709 (31.6)   1115.3 ± 1142.1 633 (267–1651)  
Joint disorders
  Present 1015 (66.6) 508 (33.4) 0.006 1062.1 ± 1137.2 584 (245–1506) 0.040
  Absent 1592 (70.9) 655 (29.1)   1154.1 ± 1151.3 671 (308–1678)  
Heart disease
  Present 848 (68.3) 393 (31.7) 0.446 1087.0 ± 1063.9 663 (279–1551) 0.661
  Absent 1759 (69.6) 770 (30.4)   1127.7 ± 1185.5 604 (265–1673)  
Parkinson’s disease
  Present 163 (66.0) 84 (34.0) 0.266 1576.4 ± 1295.5 1218 (517–2510) < 0.001
  Absent 2444 (69.4) 1079 (30.6)   1077.9 ± 1125.8 593 (265–1541)  
Home-based rehabilitation services
 Use 484 (71.1) 197 (28.9) 0.231 905.6 ± 905.4 577 (258–1242) 0.079
 Non-use 2123 (68.7) 966 (31.3)   1156.4 ± 1184.5 642 (271–1702)  
Home help services
 Use  
 Non-use   
Home-visit nursing
 Use 198 (53.2) 174 (46.8) < 0.001 1194.2 ± 1153.2 763 (329–1709) 0.105
 Non-use 2409 (70.9) 989 (29.1)   1099.8 ± 1144.2 590 (262–1589)  
Medical expenditures (USD)b
 Lower group (≤$142.62) 906 (72.1) 351 (27.9) 0.001 840.8 ± 856.7 525 (246–1060) < 0.001
 Middle group ($142.63–551.59) 882 (70.2) 375 (29.8)   995.2 ± 1066.8 534 (265–1354)  
 Higher group (≥$551.60) 819 (65.2) 437 (34.8)   1435.2 ± 1325.4 893 (310–2352)  
  1. a χ2 test
  2. b Expenditures were converted to USD from JPY (US$1 = ¥82, March 1, 2012). Expenditures were calculated as the mean medical expenditure for the month of care needs certification and the subsequent month, and were categorized into tertiles: lower group (≤US$142.62), middle group (US$142.63–551.59), and higher group (≥US$551.60)
  3. c Expenditures were calculated using only subjects who used each service
  4. d Mann-Whitney U test
  5. e Kruskal-Wallis test
  6. IQR Interquartile range; SD Standard deviation