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Table 4 Association of socio-demographic characteristics with the utilization of home-based rehabilitation services (n = 3770)

From: Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation and home help service utilization among long-term home care service users

  Home-based rehabilitation services  
Non-use Use   Expendituresb, c
n (%) n (%) P valuea Mean ± SD Median (IQR) P valued,e
Total 3089 (81.9) 681 (18.1)   786.2 ± 530.5 661 (321–1143)  
Household income
 Middle/high income 1875 (79.8) 476 (20.2) < 0.001 804.1 ± 533.1 681 (324–1169) 0.156
 Low income 1214 (85.6) 205 (14.4)   744.4 ± 523.4 642 (313–1056)  
Age (years)
 62–71 262 (66.3) 133 (33.7) < 0.001 835.9 ± 550.3 753 (326–1247) 0.496
 72–81 1057 (80.2) 261 (19.8)   764.6 ± 527.4 626 (321–1082)  
  ≥ 82 1770 (86.0) 287 (14.0)   782.6 ± 524.3 681 (321–1152)  
Sex
 Male 1010 (76.3) 313 (23.7) < 0.001 804.9 ± 532.3 731 (313–1180) 0.441
 Female 2079 (85.0) 368 (15.0)   770.2 ± 529.2 641 (322–1111)  
Dwelling
 Detached house 2376 (80.5) 576 (19.5) < 0.001 801.6 ± 545.0 669 (321–1169) 0.207
 Multiple-unit housing 713 (87.2) 105 (12.8)   701.0 ± 435.0 596 (321–999)  
Care needs level
 Care needs level 1 780 (82.6) 164 (17.4) 0.228 648.6 ± 347.0 601 (331–872) < 0.001
 Care needs level 2 893 (80.6) 215 (19.4)   817.2 ± 389.8 754 (385–1115)  
 Care needs level 3 578 (81.2) 134 (18.8)   967.7 ± 593.7 968 (449–1311)  
 Care needs level 4 466 (85.0) 82 (15.0)   827.8 ± 650.5 491 (313–1368)  
 Care needs level 5 372 (81.2) 86 (18.8)   647.9 ± 591.7 324 (235–883)  
Physical function
 Independent (Independent and Level J) 327 (85.6) 55 (14.4) 0.127 695.2 ± 389.2 648 (420–875) < 0.001
 Mild (Level A) 1584 (82.3) 341 (17.7)   826.9 ± 497.5 757 (395–1169)  
 Moderate (Level B) 817 (80.7) 195 (19.3)   811.7 ± 589.6 665 (313–1185)  
 Severe (Level C) 361 (80.0) 90 (20.0)   631.8 ± 564.1 350 (235–883)  
Cognitive function
 Independent (Independent and Rank I) 1074 (74.8) 361 (25.2) < 0.001 764.2 ± 493.2 642 (321–1120) 0.003
 Mild (Rank II) 935 (85.2) 163 (14.8)   852.2 ± 550.9 798 (391–1256)  
 Moderate (Rank III) 705 (86.6) 109 (13.4)   854.3 ± 607.2 741 (330–1226)  
 Severe (Rank IV and Rank M) 375 (88.7) 48 (11.3)   571.4 ± 488.6 330 (247–648)  
Chronic diseases
Dementia
  Present 951 (89.4) 113 (10.6) < 0.001 779.1 ± 515.7 691 (390–1009) 0.852
  Absent 2138 (79.0) 568 (21.0)   787.5 ± 533.8 647 (320–1167)  
Cerebrovascular disease
  Present 1182 (77.3) 347 (22.7) < 0.001 852.5 ± 532.1 754 (374–1244) < 0.001
  Absent 1907 (85.1) 334 (14.9)   717.2 ± 520.7 557 (313–1016)  
Joint disorders
  Present 1213 (79.6) 310 (20.4) 0.003 736.4 ± 492.5 635 (313–1102) 0.047
  Absent 1876 (83.5) 371 (16.5)   827.7 ± 557.5 705 (332–1181)  
Heart disease
  Present 1014 (81.7) 227 (18.3) 0.799 740.6 ± 527.3 626 (313–1044) 0.075
  Absent 2075 (82.0) 454 (18.0)   808.9 ± 531.2 709 (324–1169)  
Parkinson’s disease
  Present 176 (71.3) 71 (28.7) < 0.001 784.4 ± 513.0 697 (313–1169) 0.980
  Absent 2913 (82.7) 610 (17.3)   786.3 ± 532.9 659 (321–1139)  
Home-based rehabilitation services
 Use  
 Non-use   
Home help services
 Use 966 (83.1) 197 (16.9) 0.231 637.7 ± 482.5 433 (311–959) < 0.001
 Non-use 2123 (81.4) 484 (18.6)   846.5 ± 537.7 756 (364–1218)  
Home-visit nursing
 Use 269 (72.3) 103 (27.7) < 0.001 504.9 ± 425.8 321 (235–642) < 0.001
 Non-use 2820 (83.0) 578 (17.0)   836.2 ± 532.0 753 (370–1176)  
Medical expenditures (USD)b
 Lower group (≤$142.62) 1015 (80.7) 242 (19.3) 0.178 895.1 ± 549.9 847 (432–1264) < 0.001
 Middle group ($142.63–551.59) 1025 (81.5) 232 (18.5)   774.3 ± 479.0 698 (325–1073)  
 Higher group (≥$551.60) 1049 (83.5) 207 (16.5)   672.0 ± 539.2 439 (276–973)  
  1. a χ2 test
  2. b Expenditures were converted to USD from JPY (US$1 = ¥82, March 1, 2012). Expenditures were calculated as the mean medical expenditure for the month of care needs certification and the subsequent month, and were categorized into tertiles: lower group (≤US$142.62), middle group (US$142.63–551.59), and higher group (≥US$551.60)
  3. c Expenditures were calculated using only subjects who used each service
  4. d Mann-Whitney U test
  5. e Kruskal-Wallis test
  6. IQR Interquartile range; SD Standard deviation