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Table 3 Socio-demographic characteristics by household income (n = 3770)

From: Association of household income with home-based rehabilitation and home help service utilization among long-term home care service users

  Total
n (%)
Household income P valuea
Low income
n (%)
Middle/high income
n (%)
Total 3770 (100.0) 1419 (37.6) 2351 (62.4)  
Age (years)
 62–71 395 (10.5) 125 (8.8) 270 (11.5) 0.003
 72–81 1318 (35.0) 474 (33.4) 844 (35.9)  
  ≥ 82 2057 (54.6) 820 (57.8) 1237 (52.6)  
Sex
 Male 1323 (35.1) 273 (19.2) 1050 (44.7) < 0.001
 Female 2447 (64.9) 1146 (80.8) 1301 (55.3)  
Dwelling
 Detached house 2952 (78.3) 1056 (74.4) 1896 (80.6) < 0.001
 Multiple-unit housing 818 (21.7) 363 (25.6) 455 (19.4)  
Care needs level
 Care needs level 1 944 (25.0) 389 (27.4) 555 (23.6) 0.027
 Care needs level 2 1108 (29.4) 393 (27.7) 715 (30.4)  
 Care needs level 3 712 (18.9) 257 (18.1) 455 (19.4)  
 Care needs level 4 548 (14.5) 194 (13.7) 354 (15.1)  
 Care needs level 5 458 (12.1) 186 (13.1) 272 (11.6)  
Physical function
 Independent (Independent and Level J) 382 (10.1) 152 (10.7) 230 (9.8) 0.708
 Mild (Level A) 1925 (51.1) 718 (50.6) 1207 (51.3)  
 Moderate (Level B) 1012 (26.8) 386 (27.2) 626 (26.6)  
 Severe (Level C) 451 (12.0) 163 (11.5) 288 (12.3)  
Cognitive function
 Independent (Independent and Rank I) 1435 (38.1) 498 (35.1) 937 (39.9) 0.034
 Mild (Rank II) 1098 (29.1) 429 (30.2) 669 (28.5)  
 Moderate (Rank III) 814 (21.6) 322 (22.7) 492 (20.9)  
 Severe (Rank IV and Rank M) 423 (11.2) 170 (12.0) 253 (10.8)  
Chronic diseases
 Dementia 1064 (28.2) 402 (28.3) 662 (28.2) 0.910
 Cerebrovascular disease 1529 (40.6) 535 (37.7) 994 (42.3) 0.006
 Joint disorders 1523 (40.4) 597 (42.1) 926 (39.4) 0.104
 Heart disease 1241 (32.9) 429 (30.2) 812 (34.5) 0.006
 Parkinson’s disease 247 (6.6) 80 (5.6) 167 (7.1) 0.078
Home-visit nursing: Use 372 (9.9) 117 (8.2) 255 (10.8) 0.009
Medical Expenditures (USD)b
 Lower group (≤$142.62) 1257 (33.3) 502 (35.4) 755 (32.1) 0.060
 Middle group ($142.63–551.59) 1257 (33.3) 473 (33.3) 784 (33.3)  
 Higher group (≥$551.60) 1256 (33.3) 444 (31.3) 812 (34.5)  
  1. a χ2 test
  2. b Expenditures were converted to USD from JPY (US$1 = ¥82, March 31, 2012). Expenditures were calculated as the mean medical expenditure for the month of care needs certification and the subsequent month, and was categorized into tertiles: lower group (≤US$142.62), middle group (US$142.63–551.59), and higher group (≥US$551.60)