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Table 2 Summary of exercise program

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effect of aquatic and land exercise on dynamic balance in older adults

Study Administrator Dosage Total duration (week)   Warm-up (min) Main exercise (min) Cool down (min) Exercise details Individually adjusted intensity Aids/equipment for AE
Min/session Time/week
Adsett et al. 2017 [30] Physical therapist 60 1 6   Yes (time NR) 45 Yes (time NR) Upper and lower limb endurance and resistance exercises Y (RPE) Cycling, steps, hand paddles, floatation rings
Arnold et al. 2008 [11] Physical therapis 50 3 20   15 30 5 Gait, postural correction, upper/lower extremity mobility and stretching, trunk stabilization, resistance exercises, balance Y (RPE) Music, paddleboards, small weights, flotation devices
Avelar et al. 2010 [32] NR NR 2 6   3.5 NR (reps: 4 × 20) 3 Endurance exercises NR NR
Bergamin et al. 2013 [34] Exercise trainer 60 2 6   8 50 8 Lower and upper body exercises (joint mobility, strengthening) Y (RPE) Not used
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2017 [37] Physical therapist 45 2 10 AE Yes (time NR) 35 Yes (time NR) Aquatic Ai Chi NR NR
LE 10 25 10 Strength and aerobic exercises
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2018 [36] Physical therapist 45 2 11 AE Yes (time NR) 30 Yes (time NR) Aquatic Ai Chi NR NR
LE 10 30–40 20 Strength and aerobic exercises
Simmons and Hansen 1996 [33] NR 45 2 5   NR 45 NR Gait training NR NR
Vivas et al. 2011 [38] Physical therapist 45 2 4   10 35 0 Trunk mobility, postural stability training, dynamic balance Y Flotation devices, water turbulence, balance plate, stick and hoop
Volpe et al. 2014 [39] NR 60 5 8   10 40 10 Perturbation-based balance training NR NR
Volpe et al. 2017 [40] Physical therapist 60 5 8   10 40 10 Exercises for postural deformities NR Flotation device
Zivi et al., 2018 [35] Physical therapist 60 3 4   NR 60 NR Balance, posture control, and gait exercises NR Treadmill, cycloergometer, cyclette, stabilometric platform
  1. AE aquatic exercise, LE land exercise, NR not reported, RPE the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale
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