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Table 1 Characteristics of participants and exercise environments

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effect of aquatic and land exercise on dynamic balance in older adults

Study Group Sample size (post-intervention) Drop-outs (attrition rate: %) Age: mean (SD) Diagnosis Type of pool/Gym Water depth Water/Room temperature (°C)
Adsett et al. 2017 [30] AE 36 (33) 3 (8%) 72.9 (8.4) Heart failure Heated pool in hospital Chest level 33–34
LE 25 (25) 0 (0%) 68.3 (11.3) Gymnasium in the hospital NA NR
Arnold et al. 2008 [11] AE 21 (16) 5 (24%) 68.6 (5.4) Osteoporosis Community pool Varied from shoulder to waist 30
LE 20 (15) 5 (25%) 69.1 (6.3) Community gym NA NR
Avelar et al. 2010 [32] AE 14 (12) 2 (14%) 68.0 (5.7) Healthy Physical therapy pool NR NR
LE 15 (14) 1 (7%) 69.0 (5.6) Physical therapy gym NA NR
Bergamin et al. 2013 [34] AE 20 (17) 3 (15%) Total: 71.2 (5.4) Healthy Hot spring water 1.3–1.8 m 36.2
LE 20 (17) 3 (15%) NR NA 20.1
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2017 [37] AE 15 (15) 0 (0%) 66.8 (5.3) Parkinson’s Indoor pool 1.1–1.45 m 30 (room: 27.5)
LE 15 (15) 0 (0%) 67.5 (9.9) Gym (varied) NA NR
Pérez de la Cruz et al. 2018 [36] AE 14 (14) 0 (0%) 65.9 (7.1) Parkinson’s Indoor pool 1.1 m 30 (room: 27.5)
LE 15 (15) 0 (0%) 66.4 (5.7) NR NA NR
Simmons and Hansen 1996 [33] AE 13 (10) 3 (23%) 82.0 (5.4) Healthy Outdoor pool 1–1.4 m (between waist and nipple line) 29.4–32.2
LE 13 (12) 1 (8%) 78.2 (5.8) Carpeted indoor church hall NA NR
Vivas et al. 2011 [38] AE 6 (5) 1 (17%) 65.7 (3.7) Parkinson’s City spa 1.3 m 32
LE 6 (6) 0 (0%) 68.3 (6.9) NR NA NR
Volpe et al 2014 [39] AE 17 (17) 0 (0%) 68.0 (7.0) Parkinson’s NR NR NR
LE 17 (17) 0 (0%) 66.0 (8.0) NR NA NR
Volpe et al. 2017 [40] AE 15 (13) 2 (13%) 70.6 (7.8) Parkinson’s Therapeutic swimming pool Chest level (Mammillary line) NR
LE 15 (11) 4 (27%) 70.0 (7.8) NR NA NR
Zivi et al., 2018 [35] AE 21 (21) 0 (0%) 66.3 (13.0) Peripheral neuropathies Heated swimming pool NR 32
LE 19 (19) 0 (0%) 71.8 (7.7) NR NA NR
  1. AE aquatic exercise, LE land exercise, NR not reported, NA not available
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