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Table 3 Association between financial stress and self-reported depression

From: Effect of financial stress on self-rereported health and quality of life among older adults in five developing countries: a cross sectional analysis of WHO-SAGE survey

  Overall China Ghana India Russia South Africa
Model 1
Has Money (Completely)
  Moderately 1.03 (0.86,1.23) 0.41** (0.24,0.70) 1.16 (0.54,2.45) 1.90** (1.27,2.85) 1.31* (1.01,1.70) 0.70 (0.33,1.47)
  A Little 1.97*** (1.67,2.32) 3.07*** (1.95,4.86) 1.42 (0.70,2.90) 2.82*** (1.85,4.29) 1.74*** (1.29,2.34) 0.58 (0.28,1.19)
  Not at All 2.66*** (2.19,3.23) 4.66** (1.61,13.48) 2.96** (1.45,6.05) 2.75*** (1.70,4.46) 2.98*** (2.19,4.06) 0.73 (0.33,1.58)
Model 2
Income quintile (Q1)
  Q2 0.58*** (0.49,0.67) 0.23*** (0.14,0.39) 1.43 (0.97,2.10) 0.88 (0.63,1.22) 0.73* (0.54,0.97) 1.25 (0.52,3.00)
  Q3 0.26*** (0.22,0.31) 0.03*** (0.01,0.05) 1.28 (0.86,1.90) 0.61** (0.43,0.87) 0.77 (0.57,1.03) 2.12 (0.93,4.85)
  Q4 0.53*** (0.45,0.63) 0.20*** (0.11,0.36) 1.26 (0.83,1.93) 0.68* (0.48,0.98) 0.92 (0.66,1.28) 2.07 (0.90,4.78)
  Q5 0.33*** (0.27,0.40) 0.10*** (0.04,0.24) 0.58* (0.35,0.96) 0.28*** (0.18,0.44) 0.65* (0.45,0.94) 3.79** (1.61,8.89)
Model 3
Has Money (Completely)
  Moderately 1.11 (0.93,1.32) 0.68 (0.40,1.17) 1.11 (0.52,2.37) 1.61* (1.06,2.44) 1.29 (,1.68) 0.79 (0.37,1.67)
  A Little 1.92*** (1.62,2.27) 2.90*** (1.79,4.69) 1.34 (0.65,2.74) 2.19*** (1.41,3.40) 1.70*** (1.26,2.29) 0.78 (0.36,1.65)
  Not at All 2.37*** (1.95,2.88) 2.30 (0.81,6.55) 2.82** (1.36,5.82) 2.03** (1.23,3.36) 2.87*** (2.10,3.93) 1.00 (0.45,2.26)
Income quintile (Q1)
  Q2 0.61*** (0.52,0.72) 0.29*** (0.17,0.49) 0.89 (0.52,1.51) 0.92 (0.66,1.29) 0.79 (0.59,1.07) 1.30 (0.52,3.24)
  Q3 0.29*** (0.24,0.34) 0.03*** (0.01,0.06) 1.60* (1.08,2.38) 0.65* (0.45,0.93) 0.88 (0.65,1.20) 2.29 (0.97,5.44)
  Q4 0.61*** (0.51,0.72) 0.30*** (0.16,0.57) 1.62* (1.07,2.45) 0.77 (0.53,1.11) 1.02 (0.72,1.43) 2.35 (0.98,5.63)
  Q5 0.40*** (0.33,0.49) 0.16*** (0.07,0.39) 1.67* (1.08,2.59) 0.37*** (0.23,0.58) 0.78 (0.53,1.13) 4.09** (1.65,10.13)
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets.
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001