Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample population

From: Effect of financial stress on self-rereported health and quality of life among older adults in five developing countries: a cross sectional analysis of WHO-SAGE survey

  N = 12,299   China
(n = 4548)
Ghana
(n = 1968)
India
(n = 2441)
S. Africa
(n = 1924)
Russia
(n = 1418)
X2 p-value
Age groups
 65–69 4010 32.60 32.32 14.04 26.31 13.77 13.57 < 0.001
 70–74 4257 34.61 46.37 14.63 16.8 13.27 8.93
 75–79 2446 19.89 43.30 14.60 14.02 17.70 10.38
 79+ 1586 12.90 13.87 26.80 20.68 23.64 15.01
Sex
 Male 5050 41.06 31.53 18.99 26.38 12.16 10.93 < 0.001
 Female 7249 58.94 40.78 13.92 15.3 18.09 11.92
Currently married
 No 5962 48.48 32.52 18.13 16.2 19.04 14.11 < 0.001
 Yes 6337 51.52 41.19 14.00 23.28 12.47 9.07
Education
 None 5893 47.92 30.29 25.93 28.83 1.80 13.15 < 0.001
 Primary 2024 16.46 47.68 7.36 15.46 14.43 15.07
 Secondary 1797 14.61 50.31 2.56 9.74 28.27 9.13
 Higher 2585 21.01 34.57 9.49 9.83 39.45 6.66
Has employment
 Yes 3100 29.53 36.26 33.65 20.13 5.03 4.94 < 0.001
 No 7399 70.47 34.77 12.00 15.38 23.65 14.19
Residency
 Urban 7646 62.18 49.82 10.02 8.21 19.91 12.05 < 0.001
 Rural 4653 37.82 15.91 25.84 38.98 8.66 10.6
Smoking
 No 6794 55.21 27.23 21.19 16.04 21.72 13.83 < 0.001
 Yes 5515 44.79 49.00 9.60 24.54 8.17 8.69
Alcohol user
 No 7109 57.79 35.5 12.31 29.31 8.20 14.67 < 0.001
 Yes 5192 42.21 39.0 21.05 6.88 25.85 7.22
Takes physical exercise
 No 4307 35.04 29.07 13.7 22.31 14.33 20.59 < 0.001
 Yes 7985 64.96 41.18 17.26 18.53 16.38 6.65
Has any NCDs
 No 3259 26.55 39.37 22.61 19.24 4.60 14.18 < 0.001
 Yes 9014 73.45 35.92 13.66 20.12 19.69 10.61
Money meets daily need
 Completely 2283 18.67 37.23 4.51 19.89 31.98 6.40 < 0.001
 Moderately 3578 29.26 35.66 10.87 28.31 16.35 8.80
 A Little 4036 33.00 41.85 20.22 16.58 7.95 13.40
 Not at All 2332 19.08 31.42 27.52 12.99 11.62 16.46
Income Quantile
 Q1 3490 28.45 56.33 12.26 11.89 12.32 7.19 < 0.001
 Q2 1986 16.18 18.34 21.31 23.68 22.97 13.70
 Q3 3290 26.82 52.07 12.43 13.95 13.31 8.24
 Q4 1764 14.38 16.61 21.03 27.04 18.14 17.18
 Q5 1739 14.18 12.13 19.26 35.02 15.93 17.65
Self-reported health
 Good 5795 47.11 40.53 15.79 19.36 8.75 15.57 < 0.001
 Not-Good 6504 52.89 33.81 16.19 20.27 21.80 7.93
Self-reported depression
 No 9823 79.87 37.78 16.65 18.77 13.52 13.27 < 0.001
 Yes 2476 20.13 33.76 13.41 24.11 24.11 4.60
Perceived quality of life
 Good 9747 79.25 40.75 15.47 17.58 16.59 9.61 < 0.001
 Not-good 2552 20.75 22.57 18.03 28.49 12.07 18.85
Life satisfaction
 Satisfactory 6124 49.80 44.40 16.19 15.82 16.37 7.22 < 0.001
 Not-satisfactory 6175 50.20 29.62 15.81 23.84 14.93 15.81