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Table 4 Average anticholinergic burden in CFAS I and CFAS II, by age, sex, cognition and disability

From: Increasing prevalence of anticholinergic medication use in older people in England over 20 years: cognitive function and ageing study I and II

Population Mean ACB sum (95% CI) Adjusted rate ratio for CFAS II vs CFAS Ia
CFAS I CFAS II Rate ratio (95% CI) pb
Overall 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 1.11 (1.08, 1.15) 1.12 (1.07, 1.17) < 0.001
By sex
 Male 0.91 (0.86, 0.95) 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 1.00 0.01
 Female 1.05 (1.01, 1.09) 1.23 (1.18–1.28) 1.12 (1.03, 1.23)  
By age, years
 64–69 0.87 (0.81, 0.92) 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 1.00 < 0.001
 70–74 0.97 (0.91, 1.04) 1.10 (1.03–1.66) 1.21 (1.05, 1.38)  
 75–79 1.09 (1.02, 1.15) 1.26 (1.18–1.34) 1.24 (1.09, 1.42)  
 80–84 1.12 (1.04, 1.20) 1.28 (1.19–1.36) 1.22 (1.06, 1.41)  
 85–89 1.07 (0.95, 1.18) 1.37 (1.25–1.49) 1.39 (1.17, 1.66)  
 90+ 0.97 (0.77, 1.17) 1.36 (1.17–1.54) 1.53 (1.17, 1.99)  
By cognition
 MMSE ≤21 1.29 (1.13, 1.46) 1.32 (1.13, 1.52) 1.00 0.03
 MMSE 22–25 1.09 (1.02, 1.16) 1.38 (1.28, 1.48) 1.11 (0.94, 1.31)  
 MMSE 26–30 0.93 (0.89, 0.97) 1.04 (1.01, 1.09) 0.97 (0.83, 1.13)  
By disability
 No impairment 0.76 (0.72, 0.79) 0.85 (0.81, 0.89) 1.00 0.91
 IADL impairment 1.51 (1.40, 1.61) 1.64 (1.54, 1.74) 1.02 (0.92, 1.13)  
 ADL impairment 1.85 (1.71, 1.99) 1.88 (1.74, 2.03) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14)  
  1. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) displayed, weighted for nonresponse and standardised by the UK 2011 age population, with missing cases excluded
  2. Abbreviations: ACB Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale, CFAS Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  3. aAdjusted for age, sex and centre
  4. bGlobal test for the interaction between the covariate and ratio of total anticholinergic burden between CFAS I and CFAS II