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Table 4 Odds ratio of dementia in relation to individual characteristics and environmental exposure in the residential township of the study subjects (Environmental exposure according to tertile classification)

From: Effects of physical and social environments on the risk of dementia among Taiwanese older adults: a population-based case-control study

VariablesModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Intercept (SD)a0.05 (0.03)−0.16* (0.05)−0.06 (0.06)−0.30* (0.06)−0.34* (0.08)
Physical environments
 Parks, greeneries, and square area (ref: Low)b
  Medium0.98 (0.92–1.04) 0.98 (0.91–1.04)0.97 (0.91–1.04)0.97 (0.91–1.04)
  High1.02 (0.95–1.09) 1.02 (0.95–1.09)1.01 (0.94–1.09)1.00 (0.93–1.08)
 Playgrounds and sport venues (ref: Low)b
  Medium0.98 (0.92–1.05) 0.98 (0.92–1.04)0.98 (0.92–1.05)0.97 (0.90–1.04)
  High0.88* (0.82–0.95) 0.88* (0.81–0.95)0.88* (0.82–0.96)0.88* (0.81–0.95)
 Community center (ref: Low)b
  Medium0.92*(0.87–0.99) 0.92*(0.86–0.99)0.94 (0.87–1.00)0.95 (0.88–1.02)
  High0.94 (0.86–1.02) 0.94 (0.86–1.04)0.95 (0.86–1.05)0.98 (0.88–1.08)
Social environments
 Median annual family income (ref: Low)b
  Medium 1.13* (1.04–1.23)1.12* (1.03–1.22)1.11* (1.01–1.21)1.09 (0.99–1.19)
  High 1.14*(1.04–1.25)1.08 (0.98–1.19)1.04 (0.94–1.15)1.01 (0.91–1.12)
 Illiterate people aged65 (ref: Low)b
  Medium 1.04 (0.97–1.13)1.04 (0.97–1.12)1.05 (0.98–1.12)1.04 (0.97–1.12)
  High 1.02 (0.94–1.11)1.03 (0.95–1.12)1.05 (0.96–1.15)1.06 (0.97–1.15)
 Elderly living alone (ref: Low)b
  Medium 1.00 (0.93–1.06)1.01 (0.95–1.07)1.01 (0.94–1.07)1.01 (0.95–1.08)
  High 1.05 (0.97–1.14)1.06 (0.98–1.15)1.07 (0.99–1.16)1.08 (0.99–1.18)
  1. In the null model, the estimated error variance level-2 Intercept (SD) was also 0.02685 (0.005013), p < .0001
  2. aSD Standard deviation
  3. b Low: < 33%, Medium: 34–65%; High: ≥ 66%
  4. Model 3: Model 1 + Model 2
  5. Model 4: Model 1 + Model 2+ individual variables (insurance premium, occupational status, and number of comorbidities)
  6. Model 5: Model 4+ hospitals and clinics, and urbanization status
  7. * p < 0.05