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Table 3 Features of living environments in dementia cases and controls

From: Effects of physical and social environments on the risk of dementia among Taiwanese older adults: a population-based case-control study

VariablesaNo. of townships (Dementia/control)DementiaControlpg
n%n%
Physical environments
 Parks, greeneries, and square areaa,b0.1368
  Low112/112810130.9815731.1 
  Medium119/11810,98241.911,12642.5 
  High112/114712327.2692326.4 
 Playgrounds and sport venuesa,b<.0001
  Low116/11513,17750.312,81548.9 
  Medium113/114904334.5904634.5 
  High114/115398615.2434516.6 
 Community centers a,c<.0001
  Low116/11518,10469.117,58067.1 
  Medium115/113581822.2620523.7 
  High112/11622848.724219.2 
Social environments
 Median annual family incomea,d0.0002
  Low106/10925219.6279610.7 
  Medium116/115602923.0606723.2 
  High121/12017,65667.417,34366.1 
 Illiterate people aged65a,e0.0364
  Low109/11011,69744.611,55844.1 
  Medium116/116974637.2965636.9 
  High118/118476318.2499219.0 
 Elderly living alonea,f0.7884
  Low116/11612,34847.112,34547.1 
  Medium113/113957536.5963036.8 
  High114/115428316.4423116.1 
Other environments
 Hospitals and clinicsa,f0.0005
  Low113/11523388.925499.7 
  Medium111/109558121.3574121.9 
  High119/12018,28769.817,91668.4 
 Urbanization<.0001
  Rural201/202635224.2692926.5 
  Suburban114/11412,61248.112,19346.5 
  Urban28/28724227.6708427.0 
  Total343/34426,206100.026,206100.0 
  1. a Low: < 33%, Median: 34–65%; High: ≥ 66%
  2. b km2/per 105 people
  3. c number/per 105 people
  4. d 1000 New Taiwan Dollars
  5. e %
  6. f number/ per103 elderly people
  7. g Based on χ2 test