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Table 4 Logistic regression results of elder abuse stratified by place of residence, BKPAI, 2011

From: Association of functional limitations and disability with elder abuse in India: a cross-sectional study

 Abused since 60 years oldAbuse in last one month
 RuralUrbanRuralUrban
CharacteristicsOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
ADL
 No ADLRefRefRefRef
 1 ADL0.60[0.28, 1.30]1.06[0.81, 3.13]0.37[0.08, 1.72]1.08[0.32, 3.67]
 2 + ADL1.46*[0.98, 2.16]1.13[0.67, 1.91]2.46***[1.34, 4.51]1.03[0.42, 2.51]
IADL
 No IADLRefRefRefRef
 1 IADL1.08[0.70, 1.67]1.47*[0.94, 2.28]1.56[0.80, 3.04]2.24**[1.15, 4.34]
 2 + IADL1.38*[0.95, 1.99]1.29[0.87, 1.92]2.14***[1.21, 3.77]2.17**[1.18, 3.99]
Disability
 No disabilityRefRefRefRef
 1 disability1.56***[1.21, 2.01]2.63***[1.94, 3.57]2.00***[1.36, 2.94]2.90***[1.84, 4.57]
 2 + disability1.85***[1.28, 2.67]3.49***[2.38, 5.13]1.91**[1.08, 3.37]3.07***[1.67, 5.65]
Age
 60–69RefRef  
 70–790.80*[0.64, 1.00]1.12[0.84, 1.49]0.64**[0.45, 0.92]1.00[0.65, 1.54]
 80+1.08[0.79, 1.47]1.28[0.86, 1.90]0.99[0.60, 1.63]0.99[0.52, 1.86]
Sex
 MaleRefRefRefRef
 Female0.92[0.74, 1.14]0.96[0.72, 1.27]1.00[0.71, 1.41]0.99[0.65, 1.53]
Marital status
 MarriedRefRefRefRef
 Others1.34***[1.08, 1.66]1.11[0.83, 1.47]1.30[0.92, 1.82]1.07[0.70, 1.63]
Caste
 SC/STRefRefRefRef
 OBC0.99[0.75, 1.29]1.08[0.75, 1.55]0.74[0.49, 1.12]0.94[0.55, 1.60]
 Others1.36**[1.07, 1.73]1.46**[1.05, 2.02]1.51**[1.04, 2.20]1.60*[0.98, 2.61]
Religion
 HinduRefRefRefRef
 Muslim0.92[0.58, 1.48]0.95[0.61, 1.48]0.76[0.38, 1.52]1.08[0.63, 1.85]
 Sikh2.13***[1.22, 3.73]1.11[0.65, 1.91]0.32[0.02, 4.20]1.17[0.19, 7.24]
 Others1.28[0.75, 2.17]0.95[0.54, 1.66]1.23[0.64, 2.35]0.83[0.39, 1.74]
Schooling
 0–4 yearsRefRefRefRef
 5–9 years1.02[0.77, 1.35]0.75**[0.55, 1.03]0.89[0.57, 1.38]0.68[0.43, 1.07]
 10+ years0.75[0.48, 1.17]0.55***[0.37, 0.82]0.50[0.21, 1.18]0.59*[0.32, 1.06]
Wealth quintile
 PoorestRefRefRefRef
 Second0.63***[0.49, 0.81]0.69[0.44, 1.09]0.60***[0.42, .85]0.64[0.34, 1.17]
 Middle0.40***[0.29, 0.56]0.52***[0.34, 0.81]0.47***[0.29, 0.77]0.37***[0.20, 0.68]
 Fourth0.34***[0.23, 0.48]0.40***[0.26, 0.63]0.35***[0.19, 0.63]0.36***[0.19, 0.67]
 Richest0.30***[0.19, 0.47]0.33***[0.20, 0.53]0.31**[0.12, 0.79]0.30***[0.15, 0.59]
State
 Himachal PradeshRefRefRefRef
 Punjab0.53**[0.30, 0.93]1.29[0.79, 2.09]0.40[0.06, 2.65]0.25[0.04, 1.46]
 West Bengal0.48***[0.32, 0.72]0.64*[0.38, 1.05]1.47[0.67, 3.23]1.74[0.69, 4.37]
 Orissa0.53***[0.36, 0.77]0.60*[0.36, 1.00]1.22[0.55, 2.71]0.38[0.10, 1.35]
 Maharashtra3.23***[2.40, 4.36]4.85***[3.25, 7.24]24.5***[13.0,46.4]24.75***[11.0, 55.2]
 Kerala0.31***[0.18, 0.53]0.61[0.33, 1.10]0.92[0.32, 2.57]1.19[0.37, 3.77]
 Tamil Nadu0.17***[0.10, 0.30]0.10***[0.39, 0.28]0.37[0.11, 1.22]0.58[0.15, 2.15]
  1. OR Odds Ratio, Ref reference; ***Significant at p < .001, **Significant at p < .005, *Significant at p < .01