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Table 3 Logistic regression results of elder abuse stratified by gender differences, BKPAI, 2011

From: Association of functional limitations and disability with elder abuse in India: a cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsAbused since 60 years oldAbused in last one month
 MaleFemaleMaleFemale
 OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
ADL
 No ADLRefRefRefRef
 1 ADL0.89[0.41, 1.90]1.06[0.55, 2.05]0.50[0.10, 2.32]0.81[0.25, 2.61]
 2 + ADL1.60*[0.99, 2.59]1.14[0.75, 1.74]2.81***[1.37,5.78]1.41[0.71, 2.81]
IADL
 No IADLRefRefRefRef
 1 IADL1.07[0.67, 1.71]1.40**[0.92, 2.13]1.92*[0.96, 3.81]1.83*[0.96,3.49]
 2 + IADL1.22[0.81, 1.83]1.47**[1.03, 2.10]1.69*[0.92, 3.13]2.56***[1.46,4.49]
Disability
 No disabilityRefRefRefRef
 1 disability1.70***[1.27,2.28]2.18***[1.68,2.84]2.12***[1.36,3.29]2.63***[1.77, 3.90]
 2 + disability1.85***[1.23,2.77]3.16***[2.22,4.49]1.72*[0.92, 3.22]3.18***[1.83, 5.50
Age
 60–69RefRefRefRef
 70–790.95[0.74, 1.23]0.84[0.66, 1.07]0.76[0.51, 1.14]0.72*[0.49, 1.05]
 80+1.56**[1.10, 2.21]0.86[0.61, 1.21]1.07[0.59, 1.92]0.85[0.50, 1.42]
Marital status
 MarriedRefRefRefRef
 Others1.04[0.79, 1.39]1.34***[1.07,1.68]0.89[0.56, 1.42]1.34*[0.96, 1.88]
Caste
 SC/STRefRefRefRef
 OBC1.17[0.85, 1.60]0.88[0.65, 1.18]1.15[0.71, 1.87]0.56**[0.36, 0.88]
 Others1.38**[1.03, 1.84]1.39**[1.07, 1.80]1.77**[1.12, 2.78]1.32[0.89, 1.95]
Religion
 HinduRefRefRefRef
 Muslim1.01[0.63, 1.62]0.89[0.58, 1.36]1.11[0.62, 2.00]0.84[0.47, 1.50]
 Sikh1.74**[1.01, 2.97]1.23[0.75, 2.00]0.37[0.03, 3.99]1.06[0.15, 7.16]
 Others0.67[0.34, 1.31]1.43[0.89, 2.29]0.60[0.25, 1.42]1.20[0.66, 2.17]
Schooling
 0–4 yearsRefRefRefRef
 5–9 years1.01[0.77, 1.32]0.76[0.54, 1.06]0.77[0.50, 1.17]0.83[0.51, 1.35]
 10+ years0.72*[0.51, 1.03]0.43***[0.23,0.77]0.63[0.36, 1.11]0.39*[0.13, 1.18]
Wealth quintile
 PoorestRefRefRefRef
 Second0.58***[0.42,0.81]0.67***[0.50,0.89]0.62**[0.39, .96]0.56***[0.38, 0.84]
 Middle0.41***[0.29,0.59]0.42***[0.31,0.59]0.37***[0.22, .63]0.44***[0.28, 0.69]
 Fourth0.35***[0.24,0.51]0.33***[0.23,0.46]0.34***[0.19, .61]0.33***[0.20, 0.53]
 Richest0.30***[0.19,0.46]0.28***[0.19,0.42]0.29***[0.14, 0.59]0.31***[0.16, 0.58]
State
 Himachal PradeshRefRefRefRef
 Punjab0.81[0.48, 1.36]0.92[0.58, 1.48]0.52[0.08, 3.09]0.17*[0.02, 1.09]
 West Bengal0.59**[0.38, 0.92]0.46***[0.30,0.71]1.90[0.78, 4.63]1.21[0.55, 2.66]
 Orissa0.53***[0.34,0.81]0.55***[0.36,0.84]1.15[0.45, 2.93]0.61[0.24, 1.51]
 Maharashtra3.53***[2.52,4.94]3.78***[2.72,5.24]24.11***[11.3,51.24]23.23***[12.0,44.6]
 Kerala0.29***[0.15,0.56]0.53**[0.32, 0.87]0.93[0.27, 3.24]1.14[0.43, 3.01]
 Tamil Nadu0.13***[0.06,0.27]0.16***[0.89,0.30]0.25*[0.05, 1.24]0.57[0.19, 1.64]
  1. OR Odds Ratio, Ref reference; ***Significant at p < .001, **Significant at p < .005, *Significant at p < .01