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Table 1 Characteristics of the elderly patients with diabetes, categorized according to frailty status

From: Low serum albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, and body mass are risk factors for frailty in elderly people with diabetes–a cross-sectional study

 All cases
N = 148
Non Frailty
N = 91
Frailtya
N = 57
P values
Age, years76.9 ± 7.475.1 ± 6.879.8 ± 7.5< 0.001 1)
Male, n (%)63 (42.6)43 (47.3)20 (35.1)0.173 2)
Body mass, kg57.4 ± 11.161.8 ± 9.649.1 ± 8.5< 0.001 1)
BMI, kg/m223.2 ± 3.723.7 ± 3.522.3 ± 3.80.029 1)
SBP, mmHg135.5 ± 19.0138.5 ± 18.8130.6 ± 18.40.013 1)
DBP, mmHg72.4 ± 12.174.0 ± 12.269.9 ± 11.60.047 1)
RBC, × 104/μL413 ± 58424 ± 55396 ± 590.005 1)
Hemoglobin, g/dL12.7 ± 1.713.1 ± 1.712.1 ± 1.60.001 1)
Albumin, g/dL3.95 ± 0.514.15 ± 0.323.63 ± 0.60< 0.001 1)
AST, IU/L25.3 ± 10.726.7 ± 10.923.1 ± 10.30.047 1)
ALT, IU/L16.5 [12.0–25.3]19.0 [13.0–27.0]15.0 [10.0–22.0]0.017 3)
HbA1c, %6.92 ± 0.846.99 ± 0.796.80 ± 0.900.171 1)
S-Creatinine, mg/dL0.70 [0.60–1.00]0.70 [0.60–0.90]0.80 [0.60–1.10]0.125 3)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m259.5 [40.0–73.4]65.4 [52.3–74.4]54.9 [38.4–69.1]0.007 3)
Uric acid, mg/dL5.16 ± 1.435.06 ± 1.335.33 ± 1.570.265 1)
Triglycerides, mg/dL140 ± 77139 ± 74141 ± 820.911 1)
LDL-C, mg/dL101 ± 31102 ± 3199 ± 310.623 1)
HDL-C, mg/dL53.2 ± 14.356.0 ± 14.348.6 ± 13.40.002 1)
Calcium, mg/dL9.35 ± 0.499.27 ± 0.369.48 ± 0.630.011 1)
DHEA-S, μg/dL57.5 [39.0–89.0]66.0 [44.5–106.0]48.0 [33.0–68.0]0.002 3)
Cortisol, μg/dL9.50 ± 2.799.09 ± 2.7710.16 ± 2.710.022 1)
Ratio Cortisol/ DHEA-S0.16 [0.10–0.25]0.13 [0.09–0.22]0.20 [0.14–0.34]< 0.001 3)
Anti-HT drug use, n (%)87 (58.8)51 (56.0)36 (63.2)0.493 2)
Anti-DL drug use, n (%)72 (48.6)44 (48.4)28 (49.1)0.999 2)
  1. Data are expressed as means ± SD or medians [25–75% values] or numbers (%)
  2. aFrailty was defined using the clinical frailty score (≥5). P values were determined using1) the unpaired t-test,2) Fisher’s exact test3) Mann-Whitney test. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, DHEA-S dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, HT hypertension, DL dyslipidemia