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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcome measures of sitting as well as static and dynamic standing sessions (average ± standard deviation)

From: Feasibility and behavioral effects of prolonged static and dynamic standing as compared to sitting in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Sitting Static standing Dynamic standing Pcondition (partial η2) Δ Static - Sitting Δ Dynamic - Sitting
Primary outcome:
 Oxygen uptake VO2 (ml/min/kg) 3.3 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.6* 4.4 ± 0.6* < 0.001 (0.788) 0.87 ± 0.47 1.08 ± 0.49¥
Secondary outcome
 TMT1: Visual Scanning (sec) 26.8 ± 9.9 23.3 ± 3.8 24.6 ± 7.4 0.228 −3.47 ± 8.18 −2.19 ± 7.45
 TMT2: Number Sequencing (sec) 43.6 ± 10.9 32.9 ± 11.7* 37.0 ± 17.9 0.022 (0.293) −10.71 ± 11.58 −6.53 ± 14.42
 TMT3: Letter Sequencing (sec) 42.6 ± 13.2 34.9 ± 9.2 36.1 ± 15.5 0.055 −7.72 ± 11.39 −6.55 ± 11.25
 TMT4: Number-Letter Switching (sec) 93.0 ± 43.5 80.7 ± 53.0 90.6 ± 53.3 0.221 −12.28 ± 17.54 −2.41 ± 27.58
 TMT5: Motor Speed (sec) 36.9 ± 11.0 33.9 ± 14.0 31.8 ± 12.7* 0.022 (0.292) −2.93 ± 6.37 −5.09 ± 6.38
 Stroop1: Word naming/reading (sec) 54.8 ± 7.3 51.6 ± 7.9* 52.3 ± 8.8$ 0.032 (0.269) −3.17 ± 4.02 −2.42 ± 4.08
 Stroop2: Color naming (sec) 72.3 ± 16.9 67.4 ± 17.1* 68.0 ± 15.8* 0.018 (0.306) −4.83 ± 6.51 −4.25 ± 4.90
 Stroop3: Verbal response inhibition (sec) 123.2 ± 28.6 109.8 ± 23.8* 114.2 ± 33.6$ 0.013 (0.328) −13.42 ± 9.55 −9.00 ± 16.83
 Stroop4: Inhibition/switching (sec) 142.6 ± 30.8 123.1 ± 25.6* 125.1 ± 35.5* 0.001 (0.457) −19.50 ± 12.60 −17.50 ± 20.98
  1. Note: TMT Trail Making Test; Main effects are reported in the results section, however, post hoc tests are represented as follows: different from Sitting: *p < 0.05 ($ trend < 0.10); different from Static standing: #p < 0.05 ( trend < 0.10)