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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcome measures of sitting as well as static and dynamic standing sessions (average ± standard deviation)

From: Feasibility and behavioral effects of prolonged static and dynamic standing as compared to sitting in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

 SittingStatic standingDynamic standingPcondition (partial η2)Δ Static - SittingΔ Dynamic - Sitting
Primary outcome:
 Oxygen uptake VO2 (ml/min/kg)3.3 ± 0.64.2 ± 0.6*4.4 ± 0.6*< 0.001 (0.788)0.87 ± 0.471.08 ± 0.49¥
Secondary outcome
 TMT1: Visual Scanning (sec)26.8 ± 9.923.3 ± 3.824.6 ± 7.40.228−3.47 ± 8.18−2.19 ± 7.45
 TMT2: Number Sequencing (sec)43.6 ± 10.932.9 ± 11.7*37.0 ± 17.90.022 (0.293)−10.71 ± 11.58−6.53 ± 14.42
 TMT3: Letter Sequencing (sec)42.6 ± 13.234.9 ± 9.236.1 ± 15.50.055−7.72 ± 11.39−6.55 ± 11.25
 TMT4: Number-Letter Switching (sec)93.0 ± 43.580.7 ± 53.090.6 ± 53.30.221−12.28 ± 17.54−2.41 ± 27.58
 TMT5: Motor Speed (sec)36.9 ± 11.033.9 ± 14.031.8 ± 12.7*0.022 (0.292)−2.93 ± 6.37−5.09 ± 6.38
 Stroop1: Word naming/reading (sec)54.8 ± 7.351.6 ± 7.9*52.3 ± 8.8$0.032 (0.269)−3.17 ± 4.02−2.42 ± 4.08
 Stroop2: Color naming (sec)72.3 ± 16.967.4 ± 17.1*68.0 ± 15.8*0.018 (0.306)−4.83 ± 6.51−4.25 ± 4.90
 Stroop3: Verbal response inhibition (sec)123.2 ± 28.6109.8 ± 23.8*114.2 ± 33.6$0.013 (0.328)−13.42 ± 9.55−9.00 ± 16.83
 Stroop4: Inhibition/switching (sec)142.6 ± 30.8123.1 ± 25.6*125.1 ± 35.5*0.001 (0.457)−19.50 ± 12.60−17.50 ± 20.98
  1. Note: TMT Trail Making Test; Main effects are reported in the results section, however, post hoc tests are represented as follows: different from Sitting: *p < 0.05 ($ trend < 0.10); different from Static standing: #p < 0.05 ( trend < 0.10)