Skip to main content

Table 2 Odds of being Frail. Multivariate regression models (N = 1599)

From: Hemoglobin concentration; a pathway to frailty

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
  OR CI 95% p OR CI 95% p OR CI 95% p OR CI 95% P OR CI 95% p OR CI95% p
Age (years)
  < 79 1    1    1    1    1    1   
 79–83 1.49 (1.11–2.00) 0.008* 1.53 (1.14–2.06) 0.005* 1.58 (1.17–2.14) 0.003* 1.52 (1.12–2.06) 0.007* 1.58 (1.15–2.18) 0.005* 1.56 (1.13–2.14) 0.007*
 83–87 1.99 (1.48–2.65) < 0.001* 2.03 (1.50–2.75) < 0.001* 2.10 (1.55–2.85) < 0.001* 1.84 (1.35–2.52) < 0.001* 1.84 (1.33–2.55) < 0.001* 1.86 (1.34–2.57) < 0.001*
  > 87 3.80 (2.80–5.12) < 0.001* 3.85 (2.80–5.28) < 0.001* 4.03 (2.92–5.56) 0.000* 3.45 (2.49–4.79) 0.000* 3.20 (2.27–4.49) < 0.001* 3.23 (2.29–4.55) < 0.001*
Sex
 Male 1    1    1    1    1    1   
 Female 1.41 (1.12–1.77) 0.004* 1.42 (1.13–1.79) 0.003* 1.48 (1.17–1.88) 0.001* 1.48 (1.16–1.88) 0.001* 1.44 (1.13–1.85) 0.004* 1.48 (1.14–1.92) 0.003*
Hemoglobin count (g/dl) 0.78 (0.72–0.85) < 0.001* 0.79 (0.73–0.86) < 0.001* 0.81 (0.75–0.89) < 0.001* 0.82 (0.75–0.89) < 0.001* 0.86 (0.79–0.94) 0.001* 0.86 (0.79–0.94) 0.001*
Kidney function (eGFR)
 Normal     1    1    1    1    1   
 Mild decrease     0.75 (0.51–1.10) 0.14 0.75 (0.51–1.11) 0.15 0.77 (0.52–1.15) 0.20 0.80 (0.53–1.21) 0.30 0.82 (0.54–1.25) 0.36
 Moderate to severe decrease     0.82 (0.53–1.25) 0.36 0.81 (0.52–1.24) 0.33 0.84 (0.54–1.30) 0.43 0.88 (0.56–1.40) 0.60 0.90 (0.57–1.44) 0.67
 Severe decrease     0.92 (0.40–2.08) 0.84 0.82 (0.36–1.87) 0.64 0.86 (0.37–1.99) 0.72 0.84 (0.35–2.00) 0.70 0.80 (0.34–1.91) 0.62
Inflammation status (CRP)
 No inflammation        1    1    1    1   
 Inflammation        2.25 (1.58–3.20) < 0.001* 2.26 (1.58–3.25) < 0.001* 2.11 (1.45–3.07) < 0.001* 2.12 (1.45–3.09) < 0.001*
Cognitive (MMSE)                   
 No impairment           1    1    1   
 Mild impairment           1.74 (1.36–2.22) < 0.001* 1.53 (1.18–1.98) 0.001* 1.44 (1.10–1.87) 0.007*
 Moderate impairment           2.27 (1.68–3.08) < 0.001* 1 .81 (1.32–2.50) < 0.001* 1.65 (1.18–2.31) 0.003*
 Severe impairment           4.29 (1.60–11.51) 0.004* 1.98 (0.71–5.51) 0.19 1.72 (0.62–4.81) 0.30
Nutritional status (MNA)
 Normal              1    1   
 Risk of malnutrition              3.23 (2.53–4.11) 0.000* 3.24 (2.55–4.13) < 0.001*
 Malnutrition              8.21 (4.03–16.74) 0.000* 8.15 (4.00–16.60) < 0.001*
School education level
 Low level of education                 1   
 Middle level of education                 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 0.47
 High level of education                 0.69 (0.50–0.95) 0.025*
Living arrangements
 Living alone                 1   
 Living with others                 0.80 (0.63–1.01) 0.06
  1. eGFR Equations for glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, MMSE Mini mental state examination, MNA Mini nutritional assessment
  2. * P<0.05