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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study subjects

From: Hemoglobin concentration; a pathway to frailty

Baseline Characteristic (N = 1905)  
  Available data Included (N = 1829)
Socio-demographic
 Age, mean (SD), years 1905 82.44 (6.50)
 Gender, Male, n(%) 1905 597 (32.64)
 School education, n(%)   
 Low level of education 1811 677 (37.01)
 Middle level of education   711 (38.87)
 High level of education   357 (19.52)
 Living arrangements n(%)   
 Living alone 1874 842 (46.04)
 Living with others   959 (52.43)
Health conditions
 Hypertension n(%) 1814 952 (52.05)
 Diabetes mellitus n(%) 1814 261 (14.27)
 Atrial arrhythmia n(%) 1811 278 (15.20)
 Thrombo embolic disease n(%) 1808 141 (7.71)
 Cardiovascular disease n(%) 1810 269 (14.71)
 Congestive heart failure n(%) 1813 103 (5.63)
 Chronic respiratory disease n(%) 1269 17 (0.93)
 Renal insufficiency n(%) 1269 57 (3.12)
 Connectivitis n(%) 1814 62 (3.39)
 Prebaseline cancer n(%) 1814 337 (18.43)
Examination findings
 Frailty Fried’s criteria   
 Non frail 1886 936 (51.18)
 Frail   893 (48.82)
 Cognitive: MMSE score (%)   
 No impairment ≥26 1851 961 (52.54)
 Mild impairment 21–25   484 (26.46)
 Moderate impairment 11–20   310 (16.95)
 Severe impairment 0–10   27 (1.48)
 Nutritional status   
 MNA score ≥ 24 1847 1084 (59.27)
 MNA score 17–23.5   610 (33.35)
 MNA score < 17   81 (4.43)
 ADL score(/6), median (IQR) 1899 6 (1)
 IADL score(/8), median (IQR) 1884 6 (4)
Laboratory results
 Hemoglobin, Mean ± SD g/dl 1854 13.33 (1.41)
 Mean corpuscular volume, median (IQR), fl 1854 91 (6)
 White blood cell count, median (IQR), 10^3/cm 1854 6.63 (2.38)
 Platelets, median (IQR), 10^3/cm 1832 231 (80)
 Anemia n(%) 1832 381 (20.83)
 C-reactive protein, median (IQR), mg/L 1861 2.1 (3.9)
Renal function: CKD-EPI MD
 Normal (eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73m2), n(%) 1875 162 (8.86)
 Mild decrease (eGFR 60–89 ml/min/1.73m2), n(%)   1120 (61.24)
 Moderate to severe decrease (eGFR 30–59 ml/min/1.73m2), n(%)   484 (26.46)
 Severe decrease (eGFR≤29 ml/min/1.73m2), n(%)   43 (2.35)
  1. SD Standard deviation, IQR Inter quartile; MMSE: Mini mental state examination, MNA Mini nutritional assessment, ADL Activities of daily living, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living
  2. Cardiovascular disease: Arrythmia, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, heart valve problems, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cholesterol, obliterating artery disease, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism;Cancer: leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, solid cancer
  3. CKD-EPI MD: Chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration; eGFR: Equations for glomerular filtration rate