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Table 2 Effect of the long-term care insurance reform on formal and informal care services use

From: Effect of reduced formal care availability on formal/informal care patterns and caregiver health: a quasi-experimental study using the Japanese long-term care insurance reform

Use of home help services (%) Use of daycare services (%) Use of temporary residential admission services (%) Logarithm of LTC out-of-pocket expenditure Long-hours of informal caregivinga (%)
DIDb (95% CI) P value DIDb (95% CI) P value DIDb (95% CI) P value DIDb (95% CI) P value DIDb (95% CI) P value
−6.2 (−10.3, −2.0) < 0.01 −6.0 (−10.9 to −1.1) 0.02 −0.5 (−2.5 to 1.5) 0.63 − 0.3 (− 0.7, 0.1) 0.18 7.4 (0.2 to 14.5) 0.05
  1. DID Difference-in-differences, LTC Long-term care. aLong-hours of informal caregiving indicate providing informal care more than 3 h per day. bWe analyzed the propensity score matched sample of 12,761 caregivers using an ordinary least squares regression with prefecture-level clustered standard errors. We showed the coefficient β2s multiplied by 100, except for logarithm of LTC out-of-pocket expenditure