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Table 1 Caregiver characteristics before and after propensity score matching

From: Effect of reduced formal care availability on formal/informal care patterns and caregiver health: a quasi-experimental study using the Japanese long-term care insurance reform

  Overall sample Propensity score matched samplea
Treatment Control Standardized difference Treatment Control Standardized difference
Number of caregivers 2094 10,670   2094 10,667  
Age, mean (SD), y 63.0 (12.7) 64.5 (11.6) −0.12 63.0 (12.7) 63.5 (11.6) −0.04
Women, % 68.2 74.5 −0.14 68.2 71.4 −0.07
Married, % 20.8 18.1 0.07 20.8 19.0 0.04
Number of household members, %
 2 37.6 32.6 0.11 37.6 36.1 0.03
 3 25.2 26.9 −0.04 25.2 26.3 −0.03
 4 14.9 16.5 −0.04 14.9 15.1 −0.004
 5+ 22.3 24.1 −0.04 22.3 22.6 −0.01
Monthly household expenditure, mean (SD), thousand JPYb 2.5 2.5 −0.06 2.5 2.5 −0.02
Three generation household, % 34.1 34.8 0.01 34.1 34.7 0.01
  1. SD Standard deviation. The treatment group comprises SL/SL1 caregivers, and the control group includes CL2–CL5 caregivers
  2. a3 off-support caregivers in the control group were excluded for the popensity score matched sample. The percentages for the control group in the matched sample were calculated according to weights assigned in the kernel matching
  3. bMonthly household expenditure was equivalized by dividing total expense excluding out-of-pocket expenditure on long-term care services in the same household by the root squared number of household members