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Fig. 2 | BMC Geriatrics

Fig. 2

From: Effect of reduced formal care availability on formal/informal care patterns and caregiver health: a quasi-experimental study using the Japanese long-term care insurance reform

Fig. 2

Trends of indicators of formal long-term care use and hours of informal caregiving from 2001 through 2016. Notes: (a, b, and c) show the trends of the percentage of caregivers who use home care, daycare, and temporary residential admission services, respectively, for the treatment group and the control group. The percentages were calculated for the propensity-score matched sample. d shows the trends of the logarithm of out-of-pocket expenditure on formal LTC services (thousand Japanese yen). e shows the trends of the percentage of caregivers who experienced long hours of caregiving (> 3 h per day). The vertical line indicates the long-term care insurance reform in 2006, which affected only the treatment group

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