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Table 5 Binary and multivariable logistic regression of associations between depression, loneliness, anxiety, and anxious depression and demographic factors of participants

From: Prevalence of loneliness and association with depressive and anxiety symptoms among retirees in Northcentral Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

 Depression
Total sample (n = 1099)
Model 1 Model 2 
VariablesDepressed
n (%)
Non-depressed
n (%)
COR (95% CI)P-valueAOR (95% CI)P-value
Age
 60–69 Years136 (23.8)118 (22.3)1.00 1.00 
 70–74 years292 (51.1)224 (42.4)1.13 (0.84,1.53)0.4241.18 (0.82, 1.71)0.369
  ≥ 75 years143 (25.1)186 (35.2)0.67 (0.48, 0.93)0.0160.73 (0.49, 1.10)0.131
Gender
 Male281 (49.2)317 (60.0)1.00 1.00 
 Female290 (50.8)211 (40.0)1.55 (1.22, 1.97)<  0.0001.49 (1.09, 2.00)0.011
Residence
 Urban339 (59.4)288 (54.5)1.00 (ref) 1.00 
 Rural232 (40.6)240 (45.5)0.82 (0.46, 0.73)0.1071.01 (0.74, 1.40)0.941
Education level
 Pry education81 (14.2)125 (23.7)1.00 1.00 
 Sec. education176 (30.8)204 (38.6)1.33 (0.94, 1.88)0.1042.24 (1.40, 3.57)0.001
 Tertiary education314 (55.0)199 (37.7)2.44 (1.75, 3.39)0.0003.82 (2.37, 6.16)<  0.000
Marital Status
 Single97 (17.0)81 (15.3)1.00 1.00a 
 Div./Separated109 (19.1)117 (22.2)0.78 (0.53, 1.15)0.211
 Married298 (52.2)293 (55.5)0.85 (0.61, 1.19)0.341
 Widowed67 (11.7)37 (7.0)1.51 (0.57, 1.08)0.104
Monthly Income (pension or earnings)
  < #10,000203 (35.6)199 (37.7)1.00 1.00b 
 #10,000-#19,000261 (45.7)252 (47.7)1.02 (0.78, 1.32)0.909
 #20,000 - #29,00068 (11.9)53 (10.0)1.26 (0.84, 1.89)0.272
 #30,000 & above39 (6.8)24 (4.5)1.59 (0.92, 2.75)0.094
Loneliness
 Not lonely437 (76.5)422 (79.9)1.00 1.00 
 Lonely134 (23.5)106 (20.1)1.24 (0.89, 1.74)0.0271.19 (0.84, 1.69)0.036
Anxiety
 Non-anxious345 (60.4)450 (85.2)1.00 1.00 
 Anxious226 (39.6)78 (14.8)0.05 (0.02, 0.16)<  0.0000.06 (0.017, 0.176)<  0.000
Anxious depression
 Non-anxious depressed348 (60.9)526 (99.6)1.00 1.00 
 Anxious depressed223 (39.1)2 (0.4)0.03 (0.01, 0.02)<  0.000314.58 (508.05, 1941.70)<  0.000
  1. Note. Depressed, DASS 21-D score ≥ 21; Anxious, DASS 21-A score ≥ 21; Anxious depressed, DASS 21-D score ≥ 21 + DASS 21-A score ≥ 21;1.00 indicates the reference variables; COR Crude Odd Ratio; CI Confidence Interval; Sec. Secondary; Pry Primary; Div Divorced; Model 1: unadjusted bivariate associations between depression and loneliness, anxiety, anxious depression and demographic factors of participants; Model 2: associations between depression and loneliness, anxiety, anxious depression adjusting for participants’ demographic variables. In model 2, only variables with p ≤ 0.20 were entered into the multivariable logistic regression; Marital statusaand monthly incomebwere not included in Model 2
  2. ** p < 0.001; * p < 0.05