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Table 3 Differences in ocular biomarkers of both nonagenarian groups compared to the younger control group

From: Ocular biomarkers for cognitive impairment in nonagenarians; a prospective cross-sectional study

 Estimated marginal mean of controlsMean difference compared to controls
Healthy nonagenariansSEp-valueCI nonagenariansSEp-value
Macular retinal layer thickness:
 Total RT inner ring (μm)340.1−18.03.0< 0.001−22.55.0< 0.001
 Total RT outer ring (μm)294.8−12.72.4< 0.001−18.13.7< 0.001
 RNFL inner ring (μm)
 RNFL outer ring (μm)−
 GCL inner ring (μm)49.8−6.10.9< 0.001− 6.51.7< 0.001
 GCL outer ring (μm)34.2−4.20.6< 0.001−
 IPL inner ring (μm)41.0−4.50.6< 0.001−5.20.9< 0.001
 IPL outer ring (μm)28.4−2.90.4< 0.001−3.50.8< 0.001
Peripapillary RNFL:
 Average (μm)96.9−8.61.6< 0.001−
 Nasal superior (μm)103.7−13.13.0< 0.001−
 Nasal (μm)73.3−−
 Nasal inferior (μm)110.4−−
 Temporal inferior (μm)138.6−15.43.3< 0.001−16.74.1< 0.001
 Temporal (μm)70.7−−
 Temporal superior (μm)132.2−13.52.9< 0.001−
Retinal vascular parameters:
 CRVE195.3−10.93.0< 0.001−
 cTORTaa−9.690− 0.0570.0410.171−0.1090.0540.045
  1. Values in bold are significant at p < 0.05
  2. GEE corrected for sex and a diabetes, SE Standard Error, CI Cognitively Impaired, RT Retinal Thickness, RNFL Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, GCL Ganglion Cell Layer, IPL Inner Plexiform Layer, CRAE Central Retinal Artery Equivalent, CRVE Central Retinal Vein Equivalent, AVR Arteriole-Venular Ratio, FDa Fractal Dimension of arteries, FDv Fractal Dimension of veins, cTORTa curvature Tortuosity of arteries, cTORTv curvature Tortuosity of veins
  3. aLog transformation applied