Skip to main content

Table 3 Differences in ocular biomarkers of both nonagenarian groups compared to the younger control group

From: Ocular biomarkers for cognitive impairment in nonagenarians; a prospective cross-sectional study

 Estimated marginal mean of controlsMean difference compared to controls
Healthy nonagenariansSEp-valueCI nonagenariansSEp-value
Macular retinal layer thickness:
 Total RT inner ring (μm)340.1−18.03.0< 0.001−22.55.0< 0.001
 Total RT outer ring (μm)294.8−12.72.4< 0.001−18.13.7< 0.001
 RNFL inner ring (μm)21.91.00.50.0320.40.70.559
 RNFL outer ring (μm)36.30.20.90.829− 0.71.20.549
 GCL inner ring (μm)49.8−6.10.9< 0.001− 6.51.7< 0.001
 GCL outer ring (μm)34.2−4.20.6< 0.001− 4.11.20.001
 IPL inner ring (μm)41.0−4.50.6< 0.001−5.20.9< 0.001
 IPL outer ring (μm)28.4−2.90.4< 0.001−3.50.8< 0.001
Peripapillary RNFL:
 Average (μm)96.9−8.61.6< 0.001−7.72.50.002
 Nasal superior (μm)103.7−13.13.0< 0.001−7.14.90.145
 Nasal (μm)73.3−6.52.30.004−3.13.30.349
 Nasal inferior (μm)110.4−8.73.70.018−8.14.40.066
 Temporal inferior (μm)138.6−15.43.3< 0.001−16.74.1< 0.001
 Temporal (μm)70.7−1.42.00.486−4.12.50.108
 Temporal superior (μm)132.2−13.52.9< 0.001−13.84.10.001
Retinal vascular parameters:
 CRAE126.8−3.11.50.038−6.42.40.009
 CRVE195.3−10.93.0< 0.001−14.44.20.001
 AVR0.6520.0240.0100.0130.0170.0090.045
 FDa1.173−0.0210.0070.003−0.0210.0100.035
 FDv1.156−0.0190.0070.009−0.0180.0090.040
 cTORTaa−9.690− 0.0570.0410.171−0.1090.0540.045
 cTORTva−9.670−0.0540.0380.153−0.0310.0410.445
  1. Values in bold are significant at p < 0.05
  2. GEE corrected for sex and a diabetes, SE Standard Error, CI Cognitively Impaired, RT Retinal Thickness, RNFL Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, GCL Ganglion Cell Layer, IPL Inner Plexiform Layer, CRAE Central Retinal Artery Equivalent, CRVE Central Retinal Vein Equivalent, AVR Arteriole-Venular Ratio, FDa Fractal Dimension of arteries, FDv Fractal Dimension of veins, cTORTa curvature Tortuosity of arteries, cTORTv curvature Tortuosity of veins
  3. aLog transformation applied
\