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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression for changes in frailty

From: Changes in frailty among community-dwelling Chinese older adults and its predictors: evidence from a two-year longitudinal study

PredictorsRobust worsening, OR (95%CI)Prefrail worsening, OR (95%CI)Prefrail improvement, OR (95%CI)Frail improvement, OR (95%CI)
Unadjusted model aAdjusted model bUnadjusted model aAdjusted model bUnadjusted model aAdjusted model bUnadjusted model aAdjusted model b
Gender (Female)1.99*** (1.68, 2.37)1.30 (0.95, 1.79)0.88 (0.52, 1.48)0.56 (0.21, 1.52)0.44*** (0.30, 0.66)0.65 (0.28, 1.49)1.65 (0.69, 3.97)0.84 (0.19, 3.68)
Age (vs 60~ years)
 70~ years2.64*** (2.20, 3.18)2.10*** (1.72, 2.58)1.57 (0.88, 2.78)1.81 (0.98, 3.34)0.62* (0.42, 0.91)0.70 (0.45, 1.07)0.45 (0.18, 1.16)0.36 (0.12, 1.14)
 80~ years4.98*** (3.69, 6.72)3.30*** (2.36, 4.60)3.09*** (1.68, 5.70)3.89*** (1.87, 8.090.36*** (0.21, 0.62)0.40** (0.21, 0.75)0.55 (0.22, 1.40)0.53 (0.15, 1.84)
Marital status (Married)0.47*** (0.38, 0.58)0.83 (0.63, 1.09)1.03 (0.65, 1.61)1.29 (0.66, 2.53)1.66** (1.13, 2.45)0.84 (0.47, 1.50)0.77 (0.38, 1.57)1.10 (0.35, 3.47)
Educational level (vs Illiteracy)
 Primary school0.46*** (0.38, 0.56)0.63*** (0.51, 0.78)0.88 (0.43, 1.80)0.98 (0.43, 2.23)2.11** (1.27, 3.50)1.51 (0.86, 2.67)0.76 (0.18, 3.18)0.78 (0.10, 6.01)
 Junior high school or above0.32*** (0.24, 0.42)0.46*** (0.33, 0.64)1.23 (0.44, 3.47)1.04 (0.27, 4.04)3.19** (1.50, 6.80)2.02 (0.80, 5.12)0.60 (0.11, 3.25)0.66 (0.07, 6.08)
Working (Yes)0.42*** (0.32, 0.55)0.60*** (0.45, 0.80)0.47 (0.17, 1.27)0.56 (0.20, 1.61)1.51 (0.84, 2.72)1.33 (0.71, 2.51)1.60 (0.22, 11.77)2.00 (0.15, 27.26)
Live alone (Yes)1.73*** (1.28, 2.34)0.94 (0.63, 1.41)0.65 (0.33, 1.26)0.55 (0.22, 1.41)0.53* (0.30, 0.93)0.58 (0.26, 1.30)1.13 (0.58, 3.50)1.69 (0.39, 7.40)
Shower facility at home (No)1.91*** (1.45, 2.53)1.39* (1.02, 1.90)0.88 (0.50, 1.55)0.89 (0.47, 1.70)0.61* (0.37, 0.99)0.71 (0.41, 1.24)0.94 (0.32, 2.77)1.42 (0.34, 5.87)
Annual physical examination (No)1.26 (0.94, 1.69)1.23 (0.89, 1.71)1.84 (0.91, 3.72)1.49 (0.69, 3.21)0.96 (0.479, 1.88)1.17 (0.56, 2.42)0.61 (0.25, 1.46)0.69 (0.23, 2.03)
Cigarette smoking (vs Nonsmoker)
 Former smoker0.64** (0.49, 0.84)1.01 (0.69, 1.48)0.57 (0.24, 1.36)0.33 (0.09, 1.16)1.72 (0.99, 2.99)1.22 (0.49, 3.03)0.49 (0.12, 1.91)0.64 (0.07, 5.77)
 Current smoker0.40*** (0.32, 0.81)0.70 (0.48, 1.01)1.60 (0.70, 3.65)1.69 (0.45, 6.30)3.51*** (1.85, 6.67)2.81 (1.00, 7.89)0.73 (0.13, 4.18)0.65 (0.06, 7.50)
Alcohol intake (Yes)0.46*** (0.36, 0.58)0.85 (0.63, 1.14)0.86 (0.36, 2.02)0.61 (0.20, 1.90)1.75 (0.96, 3.19)0.56 (0.24, 1.27)0.79 (0.07, 8.90)0.43 (0.02, 12.19)
Daily tea (Yes)0.56*** (0.46, 0.67)1.01 (0.79, 1.29)0.82 (0.46, 1.47)0.72 (0.34, 1.55)2.05*** (1.35, 3.11)1.08 (0.61, 1.92)0.91 (0.33, 2.49)0.94 (0.25, 3.55)
Reading (Yes)0.44*** (0.34, 0.57)0.84 (0.61, 1.15)1.11 (0.43, 2.87)1.18 (0.34, 4.16)2.24* (1.13, 4.46)1.13 (0.48, 2.68)3.25 (0.29, 36.81)4.98 (0.24, 104.22)
Play cards or mahjong (Yes)0.58*** (0.47, 0.72)0.90 (0.71, 1.14)0.63 (0.32, 1.26)0.50 (0.22, 1.11)1.32 (0.82, 2.12)0.68 (0.38, 1.22)0.38 (0.04, 3.53)0.23 (0.02, 2.68)
Physical exercise (vs Almost never)
 Several times per week0.75* (0.58, 0.96)0.73* (0.55, 0.96)1.67 (0.93, 2.99)1.84 (0.94, 3.61)1.30 (0.78, 2.14)1.24 (0.70, 2.12)2.34 (0.89, 6.13)1.79 (0.55, 5.85)
 Everyday0.70*** (0.58, 0.85)0.72** (0.58, 0.90)0.93 (0.54, 1.59)1.04 (0.57, 1.89)1.29 (0.84, 1.98)1.01 (0.63, 1.63)4.35*** (1.84, 10.29)4.03** (1.42, 11.46)
Meeting with children (vs Almost never)
 Several times per week0.92 (0.74, 1.15)0.94 (0.57, 1.16)1.08 (0.60, 1.95)1.13 (0.59, 2.14)0.84 (0.53, 1.33)0.71 (0.43, 1.17)1.02 (0.33, 3.17)1.56 (0.39, 6.22)
 Everyday1.04 (0.83, 1.31)0.95 (0.73, 1.24)1.06 (0.58, 1.95)0.92 (0.45, 1.88)0.70 (0.44, 1.13)0.68 (0.39, 1.19)1.38 (0.45, 4.24)2.50 (0.56, 11.26)
Neighbor interaction (vs Almost never)
 Several times per week0.70* (0.51, 0.97)0.81 (0.57, 1.16)0.35** (0.16, 0.76)0.30** (0.13, 0.74)0.84 (0.44, 1.61)0.75 (0.36, 1.54)2.26 (0.64, 7.96)2.34 (0.51, 10.81)
 Everyday0.59*** (0.46, 0.74)0.67** (0.51, 0.87)0.56* (0.32, 1.00)0.52* (0.27, 1.00)1.07 (0.63, 1.83)1.07 (0.59, 1.93)3.00* (1.10, 8.19)2.85 (0.83, 9.82)
Social participation (vs Almost never)
 Several times per month0.69** (0.52, 0.90)0.83 (0.62, 1.12)1.39 (0.80, 2.41)1.64 (0.85, 3.16)0.93 (0.57, 1.52)0.77 (0.44, 1.37)1.21 (0.47, 3.14)1.23 (0.34, 4.36)
 Several times per week0.75* (0.58, 0.96)0.90 (0.69, 1.19)1.76 (0.82, 3.78)2.56* (1.06, 6.17)2.62** (1.44, 4.80)2.14* (1.08, 4.24)0.81 (0.14, 4.62)0.58 (0.07, 4.71)
  1. a Models for univariate analysis;
  2. b Models for multivariate analysis and adjustment for age and gender;
  3. ***p < 0.001;
  4. **p < 0.01;
  5. *P < 0.05
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